اثر سیستم‌های کشت و تغذیه برگی با کود روی بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و آب مصرفی برنج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران؛ محقق، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

برنج یکی از محصولات اساسی و مهم کشاورزی است که غذای اصلی بیش از نیمی از جمعیت جهان را تشکیل می­دهد. به منظور بررسی تأثیر سه سیستم ‌کشت و نیز تغذیه برگی دو نوع کود روی بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و آب مصرفی برنج رقم سازندگی، آزمایشی با استفاده از کرت‌های خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان در سال ‌زراعی 1392 اجرا شد. سه سیستم کشت شامل متمرکز، بهبود یافته و متداول به عنوان عامل اصلی و چهار سطح تغذیه برگی با کود روی شامل نانو اکسید روی با غلظت‌های 150 و 300 میلی‌گرم در لیتر و سولفات روی با غلظت‌های 3 و 6 گرم در لیتر همراه با تغذیه برگی با آب مقطر و بدون تغذیه برگی (به ترتیب به‌عنوان شاهدهای اول و دوم) به عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که سیستم کشت متمرکز با 9451 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشترین عملکرد دانه را تولید کرد که نسبت به سیستم بهبود یافته و متداول به ترتیب 10 و 13 درصد افزایش عملکرد داشت. تغذیه برگی با هر دو ترکیب روی عملکرد دانه را به­طور معنی­داری افزایش داد و نانو اکسید روی با غلظت 150 میلی‌گرم در لیتر و سولفات روی با غلظت 6 گرم در لیتر به ترتیب موجب افزایش 5 و 7/5 درصدی عملکرد دانه در مقایسه با میانگین دو تیمار شاهد شد. حداقل آب مصرفی (14608متر مکعب در هکتار) در سیستم کشت متمرکز به­دست آمد که در مقایسه با سیستم کشت بهبود یافته و متداول به ترتیب 2/18 و 5/17 درصد کاهش داشت. بر اساس نتایج این پژوهش، استفاده از سیستم کشت متمرکز و تغذیه برگی سولفات روی با غلظت 6 گرم در لیتر یا نانو اکسید روی با غلظت 150 میلی‌گرم در لیتر برای برنج توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of cultivation systems and zinc foliar application on yield, yield components and water consumption of rice

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Ramazani 1
  • Ali sorooshzadeh 2
  • Mahmood Solhi 3
1 Ph. D. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran; Researcher, Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Center, Isfahan, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Center, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Rice is one of the major staple foods for more than half of the world population. The effect of three rice cultivation systems and foliar application of two zinc fertilizers was investigated on yield, yield components and water consumption of rice cv. ‘Sazandegi’ in Isfahan Agricultural Research Center, Isfahan, Iran, during 2013. This experiment was carried out in split plots using randomized complete block design with three replications. Three cultivation systems including system of rice intensification (SRI), conventional rice cultivation system (CRC) and improved rice cultivation system (IRC) were considered as the main factor and four zinc foliar applications including 150 and 300 mg.L-1
nano-ZnO and 3 and 6 g.L-1 SO4Zn together with foliar application with distilled water and no-foliar application (as first and second checks, respectively) were applied as the sub-factor. The results showed that highest grain yield (9451 kg.ha-1) obtained from SRI which was 10% and 13% higher than CRC and IRC, respectively. Foliar application with both zinc fertilizers significantly increased grain yield so that nano-zinc oxide (150 mg.L-1) and zinc sulfate (6 g.L-1) produced 5% and 5.7% more grain yield than the both checks, respectively. Minimum water consumption obtained from SRI which was 17.5% and 18.2% lower than CRC and IRC systems, respectively. On the basis of the results of this research, SRI system and foliar application of zinc sulfate (6 g.L-1) or nano-zinc oxide (150 mg.L-1) is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nano-ZnO
  • SO4Zn
  • System of rice intensification (SRI)
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