تأثیر سیستم‌های مختلف خاک ورزی و میزان بقایای گیاهی بر کارآیی جذب و مصرف نیتروژن در گندم(Triticum aestivum L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

4 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خراسان رضوی، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی میزان جذب، کارآیی جذب و مصرف و شاخص برداشت نیتروژن در گندم (Triticum aestivum L.)تحت تأثیر سیستم­های مختلف خاک­ورزی و سطوح بقایای کاه و کلش، آزمایشی به صورت بلوک­های خرد شده بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 93-1392 انجام شد. نوع مدیریت خاک­ورزی در چهار سطح (1- دیسک، 2- گاوآهن برگردان­دار + دیسک، 3- گاوآهن پنجه غازی + دیسک و 4- گاوآهن قلمی + دیسک) به عنوان فاکتور عمودی و مدیریت بقایای گندم در پنج سطح (صفر، 25، 50، 75 و 100 درصد کاه گندم) به عنوان فاکتور افقی در نظر گرفته شدند. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، کم­ترین (58/2 درصد) و بیش‌ترین (77/2 درصد) نیتروژن دانه به­ترتیب در شرایط استفاده از دیسک و گاوآهن قلمی + دیسک مشاهده شد. بیش‌ترین میزان کارآیی جذب و مصرف نیتروژن (به ترتیب 67/60 درصد و 25/17 گرم بذر بر گرم نیتروژن خاک) نیز در شرایط شخم با گاوآهن قلمی + دیسک به دست آمد. با افزایش سطوح بقایای گندم، درصد نیتروژن دانه و کارآیی جذب و مصرف نیتروژن به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت، به‌طوری که کاربرد 75 درصد بقایای گندم در مقایسه با عدم کاربرد آن منجر به افزایش کارآیی جذب نیتروژن در گندم تا 2/62 درصد شد. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش به نظر می‌رسد که در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک کشور، کاربرد بقایای گندم همراه با خاک­ورزی کاهش‌یافته می‌تواند در افزایش بهره­وری و کارآیی استفاده از نیتروژن مورد توجه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Tillage Systems and Residue Application Rate on Nitrogen Uptake and Use Efficiency in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elnaz Ebrahimian 1
  • Alireza Koocheki 2
  • Mehdi Nasiri Mahalati 2
  • Surur Khorramdel 3
  • Alireza Beheshti 4
1 Ph. D. Candidate, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Prof., Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
4 Assist. Prof., Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate nitrogen uptake, nitrogen uptake efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen harvest index of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) affected by different tillage systems and wheat residue application, an experiment was conducted as a split block experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2013-2014 growing season. Four different tillage systems (disk, mouldboard plough + disk, sweep plough + disk and chisel plough + disk) were considered as vertical factor and five different crop residue applications (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% wheat residue) as horizontal factor. The results showed that lowest (2.58%) and highest (2.77%) seed nitrogen percentage were obtained from disk and chisel plough + disk, respectively. Also, the highest nitrogen uptake and use efficiency (60.67% and 17.25 g seed/g soil) were obtained from chisel plough + disk treatment. The results indicated that seed nitrogen percentage, nitrogen uptake and use efficiency significantly increased with increasing the levels of wheat residue, so that application of 75% wheat residue increased nitrogen uptake to 62.2% compared with control treatment. Regarding to the results of this study, it seems that application of wheat residue along with reduced tillage as an ecological approach can be recommended in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran to increase nitrogen uptake and use efficiency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chisel plough
  • Mouldboard plough
  • Nitrogen harvest index
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