ارزیابی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم در پاسخ به کاهش کود نیتروژن و بذر مصرفی تحت شرایط کشاورزی پایدار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین، اهواز، ایران

3 استاد، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین، اهواز، ایران

4 کارشناس ارشد، واحد کنترل و گواهی بذر استان خوزستان، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه گندم در پاسخ به کاهش کود نیتروژن و بذر مصرفی در شرایط کشاورزی پایدار، آزمایشی به صورت کرت­های خرد شده- فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی دزفول در سال زراعی 91-1390 اجرا شد. دو رقم گندم (چمران و بهرنگ) در کرت­های اصلی و پنج سطح تراکم بذر (شامل 50، 100، 150، 200 و 250 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به همراه شش سطح کود نیتروژن از منبع اوره (شامل صفر، 50، 100، 150، 200 و 250 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به صورت فاکتوریل در کرت­های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده­ها نشان داد که اثر رقم، کود نیتروژن و بذر مصرفی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‏دار بود. رقم چمران با میانگین عملکرد دانه  70/4130 کیلوگرم در هکتار برتری معنی­داری نسبت به رقم بهرنگ داشت. مصرف بذر بیش از 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار، عملکرد دانه را کاهش داد و بیشترین عملکرد دانه با میانگین 4975 کیلوگرم در هکتار در تراکم بذر 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. در مقابل، افزایش مصرف کود نیتروژن تا سطح 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار، عملکرد دانه را به طور معنی­داری افزایش داد و پس از آن تغییر معنی­داری مشاهده نشد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of yield and yield components of wheat in response to reduced nitrogen fertilizer and seed consumption under sustainable agriculture conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Davoud Omidi-Nasab 1
  • Mohammad Hossien Gharineh 2
  • Abdolmehdi Bakhshandeh 3
  • Mehran Sharafizadeh 4
  • Alireza Shafeienia 2
1 Former M. Sc. Student, Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Prof., Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Ahvaz, Iran
4 M. Sc., Seed Control and Certificat Center of Khozestan, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate yield and yield components of wheat in response to reduced nitrogen fertilizer and seed consumption under sustainable agriculture conditions, an experiment was carried out as split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design with four replications in Dezfol Agricultural Researc Center, Dezfol, Iran, in 2011-2012. Two wheat cultivars (Chamran and Behrang) in main plots and five levels of seed density (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg.ha-1) together with six levels of nitrogen fertilizer from urea source (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg.ha-1) as factorial in sub-plots were considered. The result of analysis of variance showed that the effects of cultivar, nitrogen fertilizer and seed density were significant on grain yield and yield components at 1% probability level. Chamran with the average grain yield of 4130.70 kg./ha-1 was significantly higher than Behrang. Seed consumption more than 100 kg.ha-1 was reduced grain yield and the highest grain yield with the average of 4975 kg.ha-1 was obtained from seed density of 100 kg.ha-1. In contrast, increasing nitrogen fertilizer up to 150 kg.ha-1 significantly increased grain yield and then there was no significant change.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Leaf area index
  • Morphologic characters
  • Seed density
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