اثر کود زیستی فسفر بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه ذرت (Zea mays L.) تحت شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی و کود زیستی فسفر بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت هیبرید سینگل‌کراس 640، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ‌واحد دزفول در تابستان سال 1392 انجام شد. سه سطح تنش خشکی شامل آبیاری کامل (شاهد)، تنش خشکی در مرحله گل‌دهی و تنش خشکی در مرحله پر شدن دانه در کرت‌های اصلی و سطوح کود زیستی (تلقیح و عدم تلقیح با کود زیستی فسفر) در کرت‌های فرعی قرار داده شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که تنش خشکی، تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه را به‌طور معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر قرار داد. اثر کود زیستی نیز روی تمام صفات به­جز تعداد ردیف در بلال معنی‌دار شد. برهم‌کنش تنش خشکی × کود زیستی بر طول بلال، محتوی فسفر دانه، جذب فسفر دانه، محتوی پروتئین دانه، جذب نیتروژن دانه، شاخص برداشت نیتروژن، شاخص برداشت فسفر و وزن هکتولیتر معنی‌دار بود. استفاده از کود زیستی سبب افزایش 17 درصدی عملکرد دانه شد. بیشترین میزان عملکرد دانه در شرایط آبیاری کامل (3/11813 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به­دست آمد. تنش خشکی در مرحله گل‌دهی باعث کاهش 36 درصدی عملکرد دانه، 16 درصدی تعداد دانه در ردیف و 8 درصدی تعداد ردیف در بلال شد. با وجود آنکه، اعمال تنش خشکی در هر دو مرحله رشدی میزان جذب نیتروژن دانه و وزن هکتولیتر را در شرایط تلقیح و عدم تلقیح به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش داد، اما استفاده از کود زیستی فسفر تحت شرایط تنش خشکی نقش تعدیل­کننده روی این صفات داشت. بنابراین، نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تلقیح بذر با کود زیستی فسفر می­تواند آثار سوء تنش خشکی را بر صفات کمی و کیفی ذرت کاهش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of phosphorus biofertilizer on grain yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.) at drought stress conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Peyman Sharifi 1
  • Mojtaba Adeli Nasab 2
1 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
2 M. Sc. Student, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of drought stress and phosphorus bio-fertilizer on yield and its components of maize, SC640, a split plot experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Islamic Azad University, Dezful Branch, Dezful, Iran, during summer of 2013. Three levels of drought stress including full irrigation (control), drought stress at flowering stage and drought stress at grain filling stage were assigned as main plots and two levels of bio-fertilizer (non-inoculation and inoculation with phosphorus bio-fertilizer) as sub-plots. Analysis of variance showed that drought stress was significantly influenced all of the studied traits. The effect of bio-fertilizer was also significant on all of the traits except for number of rows per ear. The interaction effect of drought stress × bio-fertilizer was significant on ear length, grain phosphorus content, grain phosphorus uptake, grain protein‌ content, grain nitrogen uptake, nitrogen harvest index, phosphorus harvest index and hectoliter weight. The application of bio-fertilizer lead to increasing of 17% in grain yield. The highest value of grain yield (11813.3 kg.ha-1) was obtained under full irrigation condition. Drought stress at the flowering stage decreased grain yield (36%), number of grain per row (16%) and number of row per ear (8%). Although, drought stress at two growth stages significantly reduced the rate of grain nitrogen uptake and hectoliter weight under both inoculated and uninoculated conditions, but phosphorus bio-fertilizer had the modifier role on these traits under drought stress conditions. Thus, results of this research showed that inoculation of seeds with phosphorus bio-fertilizer can be reduced the harmful effects of drought stress on grain yield and quality traits of corn.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Barvar-2 biofertilizer
  • Irrigation regime
  • Qualitative characters
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