ارزیابی تحمل به شوری ارقام گندم نان بر اساس شاخص‌های تحمل مبتنی بر نسبت پتاسیم به سدیم برگ پرچم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمان، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

یکی از تنش‌های غیرزنده مهم در نواحی خشک و نیمه خشک دنیا از جمله ایران، شوری خاک و آب است که باعث کاهش عملکرد گیاهان زراعی از جمله گندم می‌شود. استفاده از ارقام متحمل به شوری یکی از راه‌های دستیابی به عملکرد بالا در این نواحی است. به منظور ارزیابی تحمل به شوری در گندم، 41 ژنوتیپ گندم نان به صورت طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار تحت دو شرایط بدون تنش و تنش شوری در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمان در سال زراعی 1391 کشت شدند. شوری آب آبیاری در شرایط بدون تنش و تنش شوری به ترتیب 63/0 و 8/11 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر شوری بر عملکرد دانه، میزان سدیم، پتاسیم و نسبت این دو عنصر در برگ پرچم ارقام گندم معنی‌دار بود. ارزیابی همبستگی­ها نیز نشان داد که همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌داری بین نسبت K+/Na+ در هر دو محیط با شاخص‌های میانگین بهره­وری (MP)، میانگین هندسی بهره­وری (GMP)، میانگین هارمونیک (HM) و تحمل به تنش (STI) محاسبه شده بر مبنای این نسبت وجود دارد. بر این اساس، مناسب‌ترین شاخص‌ها برای گزینش ارقام متحمل به تنش شوری، چهار شاخص MP، GMP، HM و STI بودند. همچنین بر مبنای مقادیر این شاخص‌ها، ارقام طبسی، ارگ، اکبری، بم، سرخ‌تخم، بولانی، سیستان، کارچیا و روشن که از نسبت پتاسیم به سدیم بالایی نیز تحت هر دو شرایط برخوردار بودند، به عنوان متحمل‌ترین ارقام نسبت به تنش شوری انتخاب شدند. همچنین همبستگی معنی‌دار بین این شاخص‌ها با عملکرد دانه تحت شرایط تنش نشان داد که استفاده از آن‌ها برای غربال تعداد زیادی از ژنوتیپ­ها و یا برای انتخاب ارقام متحمل قبل از تعیین عملکرد دانه مفید است و می‌توانند به عنوان معیاری مناسب جهت انتخاب ارقام پرمحصول و متحمل‌ به تنش شوری مورد استفاده قرار گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing salinity tolerance of bread wheat varieties using tolerance indices based on K+/Na+ ratio of flag leaf

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Zabihallah Ravari 1
  • Hamid Dehghani 2
  • Hormozd Naghavi 3
1 Ph. D. Student, Dept. of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Research Assist. Prof., Kerman Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

In arid and semi-arid regions of the world including Iran, soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses. One of the ways to achieve high performance in these areas is using salt tolerant varieties. To assess salt tolerance indices, 41 bread wheat varieties planted in randomized complete block design with three replications under normal and saline irrigation conditions (0.631 and 11.8 dS/m, respectively) in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Kerman, Iran, in 2012. The results of analysis of variance showed significant effect of salinity on grain yield, sodium content, potassium content and K+/Na+ ratio in flag leaf of the studied genotypes. Evaluating the correlation coefficients among recorded data indicated that there were the significant correlations between K+/Na+ ratio under both condition and the indices of mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), harmonic mean (HM) and stress tolerance index (STI) calculated based on this ratio. Therefore, MP, GMP, HM and STI indices were the best indices for selecting tolerant genotypes. Based on these indices, the genotypes Tabasi, Arg, Akbari, Bam, Sorkhtokhm, Bolani, Sistan, Karchia and Roshan were selected as salinity tolerant genotypes. These genotypes had also high K+/Na+ ratio under both normal and saline condition. Also, the significant correlation between these indices and grain yield under stress condition showed that these indices will be useful to screen a huge set of genotypes and/or to select tolerant genotypes before determining the grain yield and is recommended as the suitable criteria for selecting the salinity tolerant and high grain yield genotypes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain yield
  • Salinity stress
  • Tolerance
  • Wheat
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