اثر سولفات روی بر رشد و عملکرد گندم در شرایط کمبود روی خاک و تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

چکیده

تنش خشکی یکی از عوامل اصلی کاهش رشد و عملکرد گندم است که موجب کاهش جذب عناصر ریزمغذی به­ویژه عنصر روی از خاک می‌شود. به منظور بررسی روش‌های مختلف مصرف روی در گندم رقم هما تحت شرایط تنش خشکی، پژوهشی به صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه در سال 1392 انجام شد. دو فاکتور شامل تنش خشکی (آبیاری کامل، تنش در مرحله ظهور برگ پرچم و تنش در مرحله ظهور نخستین ریشک‌ها) به­عنوان فاکتور اصلی و روش‌های زی‌فزونی عنصر روی) بذرخشک، پیش‌تیمار، کاربرد خاکی و افشانه کردن) به­عنوان فاکتور فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که تنش خشکی بر ماده خشک کل، شاخص برداشت، عملکرد، وزن سنبله، طول سنبله، ارتفاع گیاه، وزن پدانکل، طول پدانکل، دمای کانوپی، پرولین، کلروفیل و میزان روی دانه در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار بود. مصرف عنصر روی تحت تنش خشکی نیز در صفات ماده خشک کل، شاخص برداشت، عملکرد، وزن سنبله ، طول سربند، دمای کانوپی، کلروفیل و میزان روی در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار شد. با مصرف خاکی عنصر روی تحت تنش مرحله ظهور برگ پرچم، ماده خشک کل با افزایشی 22 درصدی به مقدار 3/4733 کیلوگرم در هکتار، میزان عملکرد با افزایشی 11 درصدی به مقدار 1732 کیلوگرم در هکتار و میزان روی دانه با افزایشی 77 درصدی به مقدار 7/27 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم ارتقا یافت. با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش، برای مزارع دیم کشور مصرف خاکی این عنصر پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of zinc sulfate on growth and yield of wheat under soil zinc deficiency and drought stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Abbasi
  • Fariborz Shekari
Assist. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
چکیده [English]

Drought stress is a major contributor to deacrese growth and yield of wheat that decline the absorption of micronutrients especially zinc from the soil. To assess application methods of zinc in wheat cultivar Homa under drought stress conditions, an experiment was carried out as split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran, in 2013. Two factors including drought stress (complete irrigation, drought stress at emergence of flage leaf and stress at emergence of awns) as main factor and zinc application methods (no-application, priming, soil application, spraying) as sub-factor were used. The results showed that total dry matter, harvest index, yield, spike weight, spike length, plant height, peduncle weight, peduncle length, canopy temperature, proline, chlorophyll and grain zinc content significantly affected by drought stress at 1% probability level. Zinc consumption method under drought stress was also significant on total dry matter, harvest index, yield, spike weight, peduncle length, canopy temperature, chlorophyll and grain zinc content at 1% probability level. The soil application of zinc at emergence of flage leaf stage increased total dry matter up to 4733.3 kg/ha (22%), grain yield up to 1732 kg/ha (11%) and grain zinc content up to 27.7 mg/kg (77%). The results of this research showed that soil application of zinc can be recommended for rainfed fields.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Canopy temperature
  • Chlorophyll index
  • Grain zinc content
  • Harvest index
  • Proline content
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