اثر اسید سالیسیلیک و تنش کمبود آب پس از گرده افشانی بر برخی خصوصیات زراعی و فیزیولوژیکی ژنوتیپ های مختلف گندم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران

3 عضو هیئت علمی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مرکزی، اراک، ایران

چکیده

تنش کمبود آب می­تواند کمیت و کیفیت محصولات زراعی را کاهش دهد. به منظور بررسی اثر اسید سالیسیلیک و تنش خشکی در مرحله زایشی بر خصوصیات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک ژنوتیپ­های مختلف گندم، آزمایشی به صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مرکزی در سال زراعی 1392-1391 اجرا شد. آبیاری در سه سطح شامل آبیاری معمول و بدون تنش (شاهد)، تنش خشکی پس از گرده­افشانی همراه با محلول­پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک و تنش خشکی پس از گرده­افشانی بدون محلول­پاشی به عنوان عامل اصلی و هفت رقم گندم شامل اروم، زارع، میهن، پیشگام، الوند، بک­کراس روشن و لاین C-78-14 به­عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تنش خشکی عملکرد ارقام تحت تنش را نسبت به شرایط بدون تنش کاهش داد. رقم اروم نسبت به ارقام دیگر دارای بیشترین عملکرد دانه تحت هر سه شرایط بدون تنش (7/9602 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، تنش خشکی (7/4632 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و تنش خشکی توام با محلول­پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک (7/4935 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود. این رقم تحت شرایط بدون تنش و تنش خشکی از میزان نشت یونی پایینی برخوردار بود. محلول­پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک در شرایط تنش خشکی، عملکرد دانه را در ارقام الوند، بک­کراس روشن، زارع، میهن، پیشگام، لاین C-78-14 و اروم به­ترتیب 6/75، 2/49، 6/28، 21/20، 7/19، 05/12 و 5/6 درصد افزایش داد. در مجموع نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تحت شرایط تنش خشکی، رقم الوند و بک­کراس روشن بیشترین واکنش را نسبت به محلول­پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک نشان دادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of salicylic acid and post anthesis water deficit stress on some agronomic and physiological traits of different wheat genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Raziyeh Farajzadeh 1
  • Nour Ali Sajedi 2
  • Taghi Babaei 3
1 Former M. Sc. Student, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
3 Scientific Board Member, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Markazi Province, Arak, Iran
چکیده [English]

Water deficit stress decreased the quality and quantity of crops. To investigate the effect of salicylic acid and drought stress at reproductive stages on agronomic and physiologicaltraits of different wheat genotypes, an experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Markazi province, Arak, Iran, in 2012-2013. The experimental factors were included irrigation with three levels (Non-drought stress as control, drought stress after anthesis along with foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) and drought stress after anthesis without salicylic acid) as main factor and seven wheat genotypes (Oroum, Zare, Mihan, Pishgam, Alvand, Roshan-back cross and C-78-14 line) as sub-factor. The results showed that drought stress decrease grain yield of the genotypes compared to normal condition. The maximum grain yield under three conditions, normal (9602.7 kg/ha), drought stress (4632.7 kg/ha) and drought stress along with foliar application of SA (4935.7 kg/ha) was belong to Oroum genotype. This genotype had low ion leakage under both normal and drought stress condition. Foliar application of SA increased the grain yield of Alvand, Roshan-back cross, Zare, Mihan, Pishgam, C-78-14 line and Oroum by 75.6, 49.2, 28.6, 20.21, 19.7, 12.05 and 6.5 percentage, respectively, under drought stress. In total, the results of this research showed that the highest response of agro-physiological traits to salicylic acid was belong to Alvand and Roshan-back cross under drought stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • Grain yield
  • Ion leakage
  • Reproductive growth
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