اثر زمان کاشت بر روند پر شدن دانه ژنوتیپ‌های گندم نان در شرایط دیم منطقه گنبد کاووس

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 دانشیار پژوهش، بخش غلات، مؤسسه تحقیقات دیم کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مراغه، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه گنبدکاووس، گنبدکاووس، ایران

چکیده

تغییر در زمان کاشت منجر به تغییر در فنولوژی گیاهی از جمله مرحله پر شدن دانه گندم می‌شود. در این آزمایش، اثر زمان‌های مختلف کاشت بر تغییرات روند پر شدن دانه ژنوتیپ‌های مختلف گندم نان در سال زراعی‌‌ 92-1391 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی گنبد ارزیابی شد. عامل اول زمان کاشت شامل 11 آذر، 30 آذر، 19 دی، 8 بهمن و 28 بهمن ماه و عامل دوم پنج ژنوتیپ‌ گندم شامل گنبد، کوهدشت، کریم، لاین 7 و لاین 16 بودند. اثر متقابل زمان‌ کاشت × ژنوتیپ برای صفات سرعت پر شدن دانه، وزن نهایی دانه و دوره‌ مؤثر پر شدن دانه معنی‌دار و برای عملکرد دانه غیرمعنی‌دار بود.‌ تاخیر در کاشت، میانگین عملکرد دانه را در ژنوتیپ‌های گندم کاهش داد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در زمان کاشت اول و کمترین آن در زمان کاشت پنجم حاصل شد. بیشترین میانگین عملکرد دانه در رقم کریم و کمترین آن مربوط به رقم گنبد بود. با تاخیر در کاشت سرعت پر شدن دانه ژنوتیپ‌های گندم تا زمان کاشت چهارم افزایش یافت و پس از آن در بیشتر ژنوتیپ‌ها به علت مواجه شدن با افزایش دما و افت رطوبت، کاهش شدیدی نشان داد. بیشترین سرعت پر شدن دانه در زمان کاشت چهارم در ژنوتیپ کوهدشت به میزان 93/1 میلی‌گرم در روز و کمترین مقدار در زمان کاشت پنجم در رقم گنبد به مقدار 32/1 میلی‌گرم در روز مشاهده شد. بیشترین و کمترین تغییرات این صفت از زمان کاشت اول تا زمان کاشت پنجم به­ترتیب مربوط به رقم کوهدشت با افزایش 46/0 میلی‌گرم در روز و رقم گنبد با افزایش 14/0 میلی‌گرم در روز بود. در اثر تاخیر در کاشت، طول دوره موثر پر شدن دانه ژنوتیپ‌ها از 3/35 روز به 3/18 روز کاهش یافت. حداکثر وزن نهایی دانه ژنوتیپ‌ها نیز در زمان‌های مختلف کاشت از 1/54 میلی‌گرم به 5/29 میلی‌گرم کاهش نشان داد، به­طوری­که بیشترین و کمترین کاهش به­ترتیب مربوط به رقم گنبد (4/19 میلی‌گرم) و رقم کریم با کاهش 2/13 میلی‌گرم بود. به ازای هر درجه افزایش دمای محیط در زمان کاشت پنجم نسبت به زمان کاشت اول در مرحله پر شدن دانه، طول این دوره 1/4 روز کاهش نشان داد و میانگین عملکرد دانه ژنوتیپ‌ها به ازای هر روز تاخیر در کاشت به مقدار 51 کیلوگرم در هکتار کاهش یافت. نتایج این آزمایش نشان دهنده واکنش‌های متفاوت ژنوتیپ‌های گندم مورد ارزیابی به شرایط محیطی در مرحله پر شدن دانه بود. به نظر می‌رسد که می‌توان از این موضوع در شناسایی و انتخاب ژرم‌پلاسم‌های مناسب برای برنامه‌های اصلاحی گندم در شرایط دیم منطقه گنبد بهره‌برداری کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of planting dates on grain filling of bread wheat genotypes under rain-fed condition of Gonbad-e-Qabus region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahmatollah Mohammadi Gonbad 1
  • Masoud Esfahani 2
  • Mozaffar Roustaei 3
  • Hossein Sabouri 4
1 Ph. D. Graduated, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Research Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Cereals, Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Maragheh, Iran
4 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad-e Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran
چکیده [English]

Changing in planting date causes changing in plant phenology such as grain filling in wheat. In order to evaluate the effect of planting dates on grain filling trend of some bread wheat genotypes under rainfed condition, an experiment was conducted at agricultural research station of Gonbad-e Kavous, Iran, in 2012-13 growing season. Five planting times i.e.:  Dec. 2nd, Dec. 21st, Jan. 9th, Jan. 28th and Feb. 17th were considered as first and five wheat genotypes i.e.: line 16, Gonbad, Koohdasht, Karim and line 7 as second factor, respectively. The effect of planting date × wheat genotypes was highly significant for grain filling rate and final grain weight and significant for effective grain filling  period, whereas it was not significant for grain yield. With a delay in planting dates, grain yield of the wheat genotypes decreased. The highest and lowest grain yield were produced at the first and fifth planting dates, respectively. The highest grain yield was produced by Karim and the lowest yield was produced by Line 16. With a delay in planting, grain filling rate of the wheat genotypes increased. The highest grain filling rate (1.76 mg.day-1) was obtained with Koohdasht at fourth planting date and the lowest rate (1.44 mg.day-1) was observed in Line 16 at first planting date. The highest variation among genotypes for this trait throughout different planting dates was 0.46  mg.day-1 for Koohdasht and the least variation was for Gonbad cultivar with 0.14 mg.day-1 increase. The effective grain filling period of wheat genotypes decreased from 35.33 days to 18.37 days with a delay in planting dates. The highest final grain weight of the wheat genotypes at various planting dates decreased from 54.14 mg to 29.5 mg and the highest (19.4 mg) and the lowest (13.28 mg) reduction were for Gonbad and Karim cultivars, respectively. With an each 1o C increase in environment temperature from fifth to first planting date, grain filling duration reduced by 4.1 day and for each day delaying in planting date grain yield decreased by 51 kg.ha-1. The results of evaluation showed that the responsible of wheat genotypes on grain filling trend under unusual environmental conditions were different, thus it can be infer that such as studies will be use to identifying and selection of suitable wheat germplasms on wheat breeding programs under rainfed condition at Gonbad region. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Efficient filling period
  • Final grain weight
  • Grain filling rate
  • Rainfed wheat
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