اثر روش های مختلف خاک ورزی و میزان بقایای گیاهی بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و بازده اقتصادی گندم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی پردیس بین‌الملل دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران

4 استادیار پژوهش، دفتر مرکز CIMMYT در ایران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور مطالعه اثر روش­های مختلف خاک­ورزی و میزان بقایای گیاهی بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و بازده اقتصادی گندم، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی گناباد در سال زراعی 92-1391 اجرا شد. سه روش خاک­ورزی شامل 1- خاک­ورزی متداول (شخم + دیسک + تسطیح + ایجاد فارو + کاشت با خطی­کار)، 2- کم­خاک­ورزی (دیسک + ایجاد فارو + کاشت با خطی­کار) و 3- بی­خاک­ورزی (کاشت با بذرکار کشت مستقیم) در کرت­های اصلی و سه مقدار بقایای گیاهی شامل بدون بقایا، حفظ 30 درصد بقایا و حفظ 60 درصد بقایا در کرت­های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر روش­های خاک­ورزی و میزان بقایا بر تجمع ماده خشک، عملکرد زیست­توده، عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت معنی­دار نشد. اثر خاک­ورزی در سطح احتمال 5 درصد فقط بر تعداد سنبله در متر مربع معنی­دار بود. بیشترین عملکرد زیست­توده از تیمار بی­خاک­ورزی به­دست آمد. با افزایش میزان بقایا از صفر به 60 درصد، عملکرد زیست­توده و عملکرد دانه به­طور نسبی افزایش یافت و بیشترین مقادیر آنها از تیمار حفظ60 درصد بقایا حاصل شد، به­طوری­که بیشترین عملکرد دانه از تیمار توام خاک­ورزی متداول با کاربرد 60 درصد بقایا به­دست آمد. از نقطه نظر اقتصادی، تیمار خاک­ورزی متداول با حذف بقایا برترین بود و تیمار کم­خاک­ورزی با حفظ 30 درصد بقایا در رتبه دوم قرار گرفت و در مقایسه با دیگر تیمارهای خاک­ورزی و حفظ بقایا از درآمد خالص بالاتر و نرخ بازده بیشتری برخوردار بودند.


کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different tillage methods and the rate of crop residues on yield, yield components and economic efficiency of wheat

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Reza Komeili 1
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 2
  • Masoud Ghodsi 3
  • Mehdi Nassiri Mahallati 2
  • Mohammad Reza Jalal Kamali 4
1 Ph. D. Student, International Campus, Ferdwosi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Prof., Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdwosi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Research Assist. Prof., Seed and Plant Improvement Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mashhad, Iran
4 Research Assist. Prof., CIMMYT Office in Iran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigatr the effect of different tillage methods and crop residues on yield, yield components and economic efficiency of wheat, an experiment was carried out as split-plot layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications at  research station of Gonabad during 2012-13 growing season. Three tillage methods including conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT) were allocated to main plots and three crop residues containing without residue (R0), 30% (R1) and 60% (R2) of residues retention were assigned in sub plots. Results showed that different tillage methods and rate of residue management had not significantly effects on dry matter accumulation in different developmental stages, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index. Tillage methods had only significantly effect on number of spike per m2. The highest level of biological yield was obtained from RT treatment. With increasing crop residues from zero to 60%, biological and grain yield were increased, so that the highest amount of biological yield was obtained from retention of 60% residues. The highest level of grain yield was related to CT + R2 treatment. However, CT + R1 and RT + R2 treatments were the best treatments in view point of economic and had the highest rate of net income and rate of return.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conservation agriculture
  • Conventional tillage
  • Grain yield
  • Net income returns
  • No tillage
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