مدیریت مراحل نموی شش رقم گندم با تغییر تاریخ کاشت و سطوح کود نیتروژن در منطقه سردسیر جلگه رخ خراسان رضوی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور مطالعه اثر تاریخ کاشت و کود نیتروژن بر مراحل مختلف نموی گندم، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های دوبار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 1393-1392 در مرکز تحقیقات خراسان رضوی اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل تاریخ کاشت در سه سطح (10 مهر، 5 آبان و 30 آبان) در کرت­های اصلی، کود نیتروژن در سه سطح (صفر، 150 و 300 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار) در کرت­های فرعی و شش رقم گندم (زرین، گاسکوژن، سایونز، پیشگام، الوند و میهن) در کرت­های فرعی فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که رقم پیشگام و میهن با 77/2516 و 17/2422 به­ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین نیاز حرارتی برای طی کردن مرحله نمو را به خود اختصاص دادند و تأخیر در کاشت سبب کاهش طول مراحل نموی و کاهش درجه - روز لازم برای اتمام مراحل نموی شد. کاربرد بیشتر نیتروژن، طول مراحل نموی گندم به­ویژه مرحله برجستگی دوگانه تا سنبلچه انتهایی و سنبلچه انتهایی تا گرده­افشانی را به­ترتیب 12/11 و 35/11 درصد افزایش داد. از بین مراحل نموی نیز مراحل ابتدایی که تعیین کننده تعداد دانه هستند، بیشترین همبستگی را با عملکرد دانه داشتند. بنابراین، در صورت تأخیر در کاشت می­توان با مصرف بیشتر کود نیتروژن مراحل نموی گندم را به تأخیر انداخت. بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق، رقم پیشگام در تاریخ کاشت مناسب (10 مهر) و رقم الوند در تاریخ­های کاشت دیر (5 و 30 آبان) در بیشتر مراحل رشد نسبت به سایر ارقام برتری داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Management of developmental stages of six wheat varieties by changing planting dates and nitrogen fertilizer levels in the Rokh cold plain of Khorasan Razavi

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Bijandi 1
  • Mohammad Kafi 2
  • Hamid Reza Sharifi 3
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effect of planting date and nitrogen fertilizer on various developmental stages of six wheat cultivars, this experiment was conducted using split split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Rokh plain of Khorasan Razavi, Iran, in 2013-2014. The experimental factors were including planting date in three levels (October 10, November 5 and November 30) as main plots, nitrogen fertilizer in three levels (No fertilizer, 150 and 300 kg.ha-1) as sub plots and six wheat varieties (Zarin, Gascogne, Sayunz, Pishgam, Alvand and Mihan) as sub-sub plots. The results showed that varieties were significantly different at various developmental stages, so that Pishgam showed the highest and Mihan showed the lowest thermal needs from planting to rippening. A delay in planting reduced duration of developmental stages and consequiently reduced growth degree days (GDD), so that planting date from October 10 to November 30 caused a reduction of 656.7 GDD. Application of more nitrogen fertilizer increased duration of double ridges to end spikelet initiation (11.12%) and spikelet initiation to pollination stages (11.35%). The early developmental stages that determines the number of grains per spike as one of the main yield components, had the highest correlation coefficient with grain yield. Therefore, in case of delayed planting date of wheat, it would be possible to postpone wheat developmental stages by applying more nitrogen fertilizer. The results also indicated that in optimum planting date (October 10), Pishgam and in the late planting date (November 5 and 30), Alvand showed better performance than the other varieties.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Double ridges
  • Grain filling
  • Grain maturity
  • Grain number
  • Pollination
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