بررسی جریان انرژی و انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای در تولید گندم دیم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیئت علمی، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی سمنان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شاهرود، ایران

چکیده

مصرف بی‌رویه انرژی در ایران و انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای، خطرهای زیادی برای محیط زیست و سلامت انسان به­همراه دارد. هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی اثر سه روش خاک‌ورزی در کشت گندم دیم (شامل کشت رایج، روش کم‌خاک‌ورزی و کشت مستقیم) بر میزان مصرف انرژی و آلودگی محیط زیست در منطقه کالپوش از توابع استان سمنان بود. جمع‌آوری داده‌ها به روش مصاحبه حضوری در 30 مزرعه تولید گندم در سال زراعی 92-1391 انجام شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها در سه بخش مصرف نهاده‌ها، انرژی نهاده‌های مصرفی و تولید گازهای گلخانه‌ای ناشی از انرژی مصرفی و روش خاک‌ورزی انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که کل انرژی مصرفی ناشی از کاربرد نهاده‌ها در سه روش کشت بین 18713- 13900 مگاژول بر هکتار متغیر بود. در روش کشت رایج، سوخت بیشترین سهم انرژی ورودی (8/37 درصد) را در مقایسه با سایر نهاده‌ها داشت و کود ازت (5/26 درصد) و بذر (4/17 درصد) در رتبه‌های بعدی قرار داشتند. بیشترین و کمترین مقدار ظرفیت گرمایش جهانی به­ترتیب مربوط به کشت رایج  (11713 کیلوگرم معادل CO2 در هکتار) و کشت مستقیم (2721 کیلوگرم معادل CO2 در هکتار) بود. روش کم‌خاک­ورزی و کشت مستقیم به­ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین میزان عملکرد را داشتند، اما اختلاف عملکرد آن­ها معنی‌دار نبود. در مقابل، بیشترین و کمترین میزان بهره­وری اقتصادی به­ترتیب مربوط به کشت مستقیم (21/0) و روش رایج (16/0) ­بود. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که با استفاده از روش‌های خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی (کم‌خاک‌ورزی و کشت مستقیم)، می­توان مصرف سوخت، انرژی و تولید گازهای گلخانه‌ای را کاهش و بهره‌وری انرژی و اقتصادی را افزایش داد، بدون آن­که کاهش معنی‌داری در عملکرد گندم ایجاد شود.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating energy flow and greenhouse gas emissions in rainfed wheat production

نویسنده [English]

  • Zeynolabdin Omid-Mehr
Staff Board Member, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering Research, Semnan, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Shahrood, Iran
چکیده [English]

Excessive consumption of energy in Iran resulted greenhouse gas emissions and related risks to the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tillage and cultivation of wheat (including conventional farming, reduced tillage and direct seeding) on energy consumption and environmental pollution in the Kalpoosh region of Semnan province. Data were collected through interviews in 30 typical fields of wheat production. Data were analyzed with regard to inputs consumption, inputs energy and greenhouse gas emissions from the consumed energy and tillage method. Total inputs energy from the consumed inputs varied between 13900 to 18713 MJ ha-1. Results indicated that in conventional method, fuel consumption had the most share of energy input (37.8 % of total) followed by Nitrogen (26.5%) and seed (17.4%), respectively. Nitrogen had the most share of energy input in reduced tillage (31.7%) and direct seeding (35.7%). Maximum and minimum of greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4 and N2O) were related to conventional seeding (11713 kg equivalent CO2 ha-1) and  direct seeding ( 2721 kg equivalent CO2 ha-1.), respectively. Wheat yield differences in three methods wasn’t significant, maximum and minimum of wheat yield related to reduced tillage, direct seeding, respectively. Maximum and minimum of economical productivity belonged to direct seeding (0.21) and conventional tillage (0.16), respectively. It can be concluded that using conservation tillage (reduced tillage and direct seeding), without a significant decrease in the yield of wheat, reduced fuel consumption, energy and greenhouse gas emissions, and increased energy efficiency and economical productivity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Economical productivity
  • Energy efficiency
  • Global warming potential
  • Tillage
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