اثر زمان نشاکاری بر جذب و کارایی مصرف تابش در ارقام برنج (Oryza sativa L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

4 استادیار پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، معاونت آمل، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، آمل، ایران

5 دانشیار، گروه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

شکل‌گیری عملکرد دانه به عواملی مانند میزان انرژی تابشی در دسترس و ویژگی‌های ژنتیکی گیاه مانند میزان جذب تابش، کارایی تبدیل تابش جذب­شده به زیست‌توده و سهم زیست‌توده در عملکرد دانه بستگی دارد. در راستای تغییر اقلیم،
به­منظور بررسی تاثیرپذیری این ویژگی­ها از عوامل و شرایط محیطی، آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز ترویج و توسعه تکنولوژی هراز در بهار سال‌های 1392 و 1393 اجرا و جهت مواجه شدن ارقام برنج با شرایط محیطی مختلف از سه زمان نشاکاری استفاده شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل شش رقم برنج (صمدی، هاشمی، طارم، شیرودی، کشوری و گوهر) و سه زمان نشاکاری (15 اردیبهشت، 30 اردیبهشت و 20 خرداد) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که ارقام برنج از نظر عملکرد دانه، زیست‌توده، شاخص سطح برگ در مرحله 50 درصد گلدهی و 20 روز پس از گلدهی، شاخص برداشت، تابش فعال فتوسنتزی (PAR) جذبی تجمعی، درصد تابش فعال فتوسنتزی جذبی و کارایی مصرف تابش، سرعت و مدت پر شدن دانه و تعداد خوشه در واحد سطح اختلاف معنی‌داری داشتند. کلیه ویژگی‌های گیاهی مورد مطالعه به غیر از کارایی مصرف تابش در زمان‌های مختلف نشاکاری دارای اختلاف معنی‌داری بودند. بیش­ترین عملکرد دانه، زیست‌توده، شاخص برداشت، PAR  دریافتی تجمعی، PAR  جذبی تجمعی، مدت پر شدن دانه و طول دوره رشد در زمان نشاکاری اول (به­ترتیب 7204 کیلوگرم در هکتار، 17229 کیلوگرم در هکتار، 9/41 درصد، 1050 مگاژول در مترمربع، 827 مگاژول در مترمربع، 6/20 روز و 105 روز) و کم­ترین مقدار آن­ها در زمان نشاکاری سوم حاصل شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تغییر در زمان نشاکاری ارقام برنج باعث تغییر میانگین دما طی دوره رشد، تغییر میزان تابش دریافتی تجمعی و به تبع آن تغییر تابش جذبی تجمعی شد، اما اثر معنی‌داری بر کارایی مصرف تابش نداشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of transplanting date on radiation interception and radiation use efficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hatam Hatami 1
  • Gholamreza Mohsenabadi 2
  • Masoud Esfahani 3
  • Bahman Amiri larijani 4
  • Ali Aalami 5
1 Ph. D. Student, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
4 Research Assist. Prof., Rice Research Institute of Iran, Mazandaran Branch, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Amol, Iran
5 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

The formation of grain yield depends on fators such as available radiation and the genetic  characteristics of plant like radiation interception rate, radiation use efficiency and biomass contribution. In regard to climatic changes, for studying the effect of environmental conditions on this characteristics, a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at Haraz Extension and Technology Development Center, Iran, in two crop seasons, 2013 and 2014. Three transplanting dates were used to encounter rice varieties under different environmental conditions. Treatments included rice cultivars (Tarom Samadi, Tarom Hashemi, Local Tarom, Shiroudi, Keshvari and Gohar) and transplanting dates (5th may, 20th may and 10th June). Results showed that grain yield, biomass, LAI at heading and 20 days after heading, harvest index, accumulated intercepted photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency, grain filling rate, grain filling period and panicle number.m2 varied significantly between rice varieties. Transplanting date had significant effect on all traits, except radiation use efficiency. Highest grain yield, biomass, harvest index, accumulated incident PAR, accumulated intercepted PAR, grain filling period and growth duration were obtained  in transplanting on 5th may ( 7204 kg.ha-1, 17229 kg.ha-1, 41.9%, 1050 MJ.m-2, 827 MJ.m-2, 20.6 and 105 days, respectively) and lowest in transplanting on 10th June. Results of this experiment showed that changing in transplanting date of rice varieties caused changing in mean temperature during growth period, accumulated incident PAR and accumulated intercepted PAR as fallow, but had non significant effect on radiation use efficiency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biomass
  • Grain filling
  • Leaf area index
  • Photosynthesis active radiation
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