ارزیابی ژنوتیپ‌های برنج بر اساس عملکرد و اجزای آن تحت شرایط آبیاری کامل و تنش خشکی و شاخص‌های تحمل به خشکی با روش‌ تجزیه بای‌پلات

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهش،‌ موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ‏ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی ژنوتیپ‌های برنج از لحاظ تحمل به خشکی و تعیین صفات مؤثر بر عملکرد دانه، 18 ژنوتیپ برنج (14 لاین جهش­یافته نسل M5 و چهار رقم حساس به خشکی) تحت شرایط آبیاری کامل (بدون تنش) و تنش خشکی در مرحله زایشی به‌صورت دو آزمایش جداگانه در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور در رشت طی سال زراعی 94-1393 ارزیابی شدند. تجزیه بای‌پلات ژنوتیپ در صفت نشان داد که عملکرد دانه تحت شرایط آبیاری کامل با تعداد پنجه، درصد باروری دانه و عرض دانه و تحت شرایط تنش خشکی با طول و عرض دانه، تعداد پنجه، درصد باروری دانه و تعداد دانه پر همبستگی مثبت داشت. شاخص‌های متوسط بهره­وری (MP)، میانگین هندسی تولید (GMP)، میانگین هارمونیک (HarM)، شاخص تحمل به تنش (STI) و شاخص عملکرد (YI)، شاخص‌های مناسب در شناسایی ژنوتیپ‌های برتر در شرایط تنش بودند. بر اساس شاخص‌های تحمل به خشکی و نمود کلی صفات در شرایط تنش، ارقام خزر، هاشمی، طارم و گیلانه حساس‌ترین و لاین‌‌های موتانت 1، 2، 3، 4 (همگی از رقم طارم محلی) و 7 (از رقم هاشمی)، به‌ترتیب با میانگین عملکرد 33/2788، 00/2163، 33/2178، 00/2194 و 00/2375 کیلوگرم در هکتار تحت شرایط تنش خشکی، متحمل‌ترین ژنوتیپ‌ها بودند. بر اساس نمره تحمل به تنش (STS) نیز این لاین‌ها متحمل‌ترین ژنوتیپ‌ها بودند. بنابراین، به نظر می‌رسد که استفاده از موتاسیون توانسته باشد تحمل به خشکی را در نتاج افزایش دهد. این لاین‌های موتانت علاوه بر استفاده به­عنوان والدین تلاقی‌ها، می‌توانند به­عنوان ارقام متحمل به خشکی نیز معرفی شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of rice genotypes based on yield and yield components under complete irrigation and drought stress conditions and drought tolerance indices using biplot analysis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hashem Aminpanah 1
  • Peyman Sharifi 1
  • Ali Akbar Ebadi 2
1 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
2 Research Assist. Prof., Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research Education and Extension ‎Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate rice genotypes to drought stress and determine the effective traits on grain yield, 18 rice genotypes (14 M5 mutant lines and four drought sensitive cultivars) were studied in two separately experiments under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions in reproductive stage based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII), Rasht, Iran, during 2014-2015 growing season. Genotype by trait (GT) biplot analysis indicated positive correlations between grain yield and tiller number, grain productivity and width of grains in normal irrigation condition and width and length of grains, number of tillers, grain productivity and number of filled grains in drought stress condition. Stress tolerance index (STI), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and harmonic mean (HM) indices were as suitable indices to select the high-yielding genotypes under drought stress condition. Based on drought stress tolerance indices and overall performance of traits under drought condition, Khazar, Hashemi, Tarom and Gilaneh were as the most sensitive genotypes and mutant lines G1, G2, G3, G4 (derived from Tarom) and G7 (derived from Hashemi) with 2788.33, 2163.00, 2178.33, 2194.00 and 2375.00 kg.ha-1 grain yield in drought stress condition, were the tolerant genotypes. Stress tolerance score (STS) were also introduced the above genotypes as tolerant genotypes. Therefore, it is seems that use of mutations has been able to increase drought tolerance on the progenies. The above mutant lines in addition to use as parents in crosses, could also be used in the introduction of drought tolerant cultivars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Genotype by trait biplot
  • Mutation
  • Stress tolerance score
  • Yield index
Abdolshahi, R., Safarian, A., Nazari, M., Pourseyedi, S. and Mohamadi-Nejad, G.2013. Screening drought-tolerant genotypes in bread wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) using different multivariate methods. Archive of Agronomy and Soil Science 59: 685-704.##Afiukwa, C. A., Faluyi, J. O., Atkinson, C. J., Ubi, B. E., Igwe, D. O. and Akinwale, R. O. 2016. Screening of some rice varieties and landraces cultivated in Nigeria for drought tolerance based on phenotypic traits and their association with SSR polymorphisms. African Journal of Agricultural Research 11(29): 2599-2615.##Akcura, M. 2011. The relationships of some traits in Turkish winter bread wheat landraces. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 35: 115-125.##Ala, A., Agha-Alikhani, M., Amiri Larijani, B. and Soufizadeh, S. 2014. Comparison between direct-seeding and transplanting of rice in Mazandaran province: Weed competition, yield and yield components. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 12(3): 463-475.##Aminpanah, H. and Sharifi, P. 2013. Path analysis of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain yield and its related components in competition with barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv). Journal of Crop Production and Proccessing 3: 105-121. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Atnaf, M., Tesfaye, K., Dagne, K. and Wegary, D. 2017. Genotype by trait biplot analysis to study associations and profiles of Ethiopian white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) landraces. Australian Journal of Crop Science 11(1):55-62.##Badu-Apraku, B. and Akinwale, R. O. 2011.Cultivar evaluation and trait analysis of tropical early maturing maize under striga-infested and striga-free environments. Field Crops Research 121: 186-194.##Balouchzaehi, A. B. and Kiani, G. 2013. Determination of selection criteria for yield improvement in rice through path analysis. Journal of Crop Breeding 5(12): 75-84. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Barnabás, B., Jäger, K., and Fehér, A. 2008. The effect of drought and heat stress on reproductive processes in cereals. Plant, Cell and Environment 31(1): 11-38.##Beikzadeh, H., Alavi Siney, S. M., Bayat, M. and Ezady, A. A. 2015. Estimation of genetic parameters of effective agronomical traits on yield in some of Iranian rice cultivar. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh and Sazandegi) 104: 73-78. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Bouslama, M. and Schapaugh, W. T. 1984. Stress tolerance in soybean. Part I: Evaluation of three screening techniques for heat and drought tolerance. Crop Science 24: 933-937.##Blum, A. and Sullivan, C. Y. 1986. The comparative drought resistance of sorgum and millet from humid and dry regions. Annals of Botany 57: 835-846.##Caton, B. P., Cope, A. E. and Mortimer, M. 2003. Growth traits of diverse rice cultivars under severe competition: implications for screening for competitiveness. Field Crops Research 83: 157-172.##Ekeleme, F., Kamara, A. Y., Oikeh S. O., Omoigui L. O., Amaza, P., Abdoulaye, T. and Chikoye, D. 2009.Response of upland rice cultivars to weed competition in the savannas of west Africa. Crop Protection 28(1): 90-96.##Erfani, F., Shokrpour, M., Momeni, A. and Erfani,A. 2012. Evaluation of drought tolerance in rice varieties using yield-based indices at vegetative and reproductive stage. Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science 23(4): 136-147. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Fehr, W. R. 1987. Principles of cultivar development: Theory and technique. Macmillan Publishing Company, Macmillan, Inc. New York. 536 p.##Fernandez, G. C. J. 1992. Effective selection criteria for assessing plant stress tolerance. In: Kuo, C. G. (Ed.). Adaptation of food crops to temperature and water stress tolerance. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Adaptation of Vegetables and Other Food Crops to Temperature and Water Stress. AVRDC Publications, Tainan, Shanhua, Taiwan. pp: 257-270.##Fischer, R. and Maurer, R. 1978. Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars. I. Grain yield responses. Crop and Pasture Science 29: 897-912.##Gavuzzi, P., Rizza, F., Palumbo, M., Campaline, R. G., Ricciardi, G. L. and Brghi, B. 1997. Evaluation of field and laboratory of drought and heat stress in winter cereals. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 77(4): 523-531.##Ghiasy Oskoee, M., Farahbakhsh, H., Sabouri, H. and Mohammadinejad, G. 2013. Evaluation of rice cultivars in drought and normal conditions based on sensitive and tolerance indices. Electronic Journal of Crop Poduction 6(4): 55-75. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Gohari, M., Khayat, M. and Lack, S. 2010. Correlation and path analysis in some of important agronomic traits on grain yield of rice cultivars. New Finding in Agriculture 4(3): 261-269. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Geravandi, M., Farshadfar, E. and Kahrizi, D. 2011. Evaluation of some physiological traits as indicators of drought tolerance in bread wheat genotypes. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology
58(1): 69-75.##Guimarães, C. M., Stone, L. F., Lorieux, M., Oliveira, J. P., Alencar, G. C. O. and Dias, R. A. A. 2010.Infrared thermometry for drought phenotyping of inter and intra specific upland rice lines. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambienta l4(2): 148-154.##Haider,Z., Razaq, A., Mehboob, A., ur Rehman, S., Iqbal, A., Hussain, A., Saeed, U., Naveed, M.T., Zia, S., Mahmood,Z. and Mehmood, K. 2013. Comparison of associations among yield and yield components in rice (Oryzae sativa L.) under simulated drought stress condition using multivariate statistics. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research 4 (8): 329-340.##Haider, Z., Khan, A.S. and Zia, S. 2012.Correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield components in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under simulated drought stress condition. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science 12(1): 100-104.##Karim Koshteh, R. and Sabouri, H. 2015. Rice drought-tolerant genotypes recognition using multivariate analysis. Agroecology Journal 11(4): 13-24. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Malekshahi, F., Dehghani, H. and Alizade, B. 2012. Biplot trait analysis of some of canola (Brassica napus L.) genotypes in irrigation and drought stress conditions. Plant Production Journal 35(3): 1-16. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Majd, F. and Ardakani, M. R. 2004. Nuclear techniques in agriculture sciences. Tehran University Press, Tehran, Iran. 381 p. (In Persian).##McCouch, S. 2004.Diversifying selection in plant breeding. Plos Biology 2(10): 1507-1512.##Muthuramu, S., Jebaraj, S. and Gnanasekaran, M. 2011. AMMI biplot analysis for drought tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2(1): 98-100.##Oladejo, A. S., Akinwale, R. O. and Obisesan, I. O. 2011. Interrelationships between grain yield and other physiological traits of cowpea cultivars. African Crop Science Journal 19(3): 189-200.##Panahabadi, R., Ahmadikhah, A. and Askari, H. 2016. The effects of drought stress on morpho-physiological characters and expression of OsCat A in rice seedling. Journal of Agricultural Biotecnology 8(2): 1-16. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Rahim Souroush, H., Mesbah, M. and Hosseinzadeh, A. 2005. Studying the relationships among yield and yield component traits in rice. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Sciences 35(4): 983-993. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Rahimi, M., Dehghani, H., Rabiei, B. and Tarang, A.R. 2013. Evaluation of rice segregating population based on drought tolerance criteria and biplot analysis. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 5(3): 194-199.##Ravindra Babu, V., Shreya, K., Dangi, K. S., Usharani, G. and Shankar, A. S. 2012. Correlation and path analysis studies in popular rice hybrids of India. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 2(3): 1-5.##Rosielle, A. and Hamblin, J. 1981. Theoretical aspects of selection for yield in stress and non-stress environments. Crop Science 21: 943-946.##Sabaghnia, N., Farhad, B. and Janmohammadi, M. 2015. Graphic analysis of trait relations of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) landraces using the biplot method. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 63 (4): 1187-1194.##Safaei Chaeikar, S., Rabiei, B., Samizadeh, H. and Esfahani, M. 2008.Evaluation of tolerance to terminal drought stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 9 (4): 315-331. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Safari Dolatabad, S., Choukan, R., Hervan, E. M. and Dehghani, H. 2010. Multienvironment analysis of traits relation and hybrids comparison of maize based on the genotype by trait biplot. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 5(1): 107-113.##Samonte, S. O. P. B., Wilson, L. T., Tabien, R. E. and Medley, J. C. 2011. Evaluation of a rice plant type designed for high grain yield. ASA CSSA SSSA International Annual Meetings, San Antonio, Texas, USA. Available at http://a-c-s.confex.com/crops/2011am/flvgateway. cgi/id/11283?recordingid=11283.##Samonte, S. O.P.B., Wilson, L. T. and Tabien, R.E. 2006. Maximum node production rate and main culm node number contributions to yield and yield-related traits in rice. Field Crops Research 96(2,3): 313-319.##Samonte, S. O. P. B., Tabien, R. E. and Wilson, L. T. 2013.Parental selection in rice cultivar improvement. Rice Science 20(1): 45-51.##Sharifi P., Dehghani, H., Mumeni, A. and Moghaddam, M. 2013. Study genetic relations of some of rice agronomic traits with grain yield by some of multivariate analysis. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 44(1): 169-179. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Venuprasad, R., Sta Cruz, M. T., Amante, M., Magbanua, R., Kumar, A. and Atlin, G. N. 2008. Response to two cycles of divergent selection for grain yield under drought stress in four rice breeding populations. Field Crops Research 107: 232-244.##Yan, W. and Kang, M. S. 2003. GGE biplot analysis: A graphical tool for breeders, geneticists and agronomists. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.##Yan, W. and Frégeau-Reid, J. 2008. Breeding line selection based on multiple traits. Crop Science 48: 417-423.##Yan, W. and Frégeau-Reid, J. 2018. Genotype by yield×trait (GYT) biplot: A novel approach for genotype selection based on multiple traits. Scientific Reports 8(1): 1-10.##Yan, W. and Rajcan, I.2002. Biplot analysis of test sites and trait relations of soybean in Ontario. Crop Science 42: 11-20.##Yan, W. and Tinker, N. A. 2005. An integrated biplot analysis system for displaying, interpreting, and exploring genotype × environment interaction. Crop Science 45: 1004-1016.##Yan, W., Hunt, L. A., Sheng, Q. and Szlavnics, Z. 2000. Cultivar evaluation and mega-environment investigation based on the GGE biplot. Crop Science 40: 597-605.