ارزیابی تحمل به خشکی در ارقام و لاین‌های امیدبخش گندم نان تحت شرایط اقلیم گرم و خشک جنوب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آمـوزش کشـاورزی و منـابع طبیعـی اسـتان فـارس، سـازمان تحقیقـات، آمـوزش و ترویج کشاورزی، داراب، ایران

2 مربی پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آمـوزش کشـاورزی و منـابع طبیعـی اسـتان فـارس، سـازمان تحقیقـات، آمـوزش و ترویج کشاورزی، داراب، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات آب و خاک، مرکز تحقیقات و آمـوزش کشـاورزی و منـابع طبیعـی اسـتان فـارس، سـازمان تحقیقـات، آمـوزش و ترویج کشاورزی، داراب، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی تحمل به خشکی ژنوتیپ­های گندم نان، نوزده رقم تجاری به­همراه نه لاین امید­بخش در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مرکز ­تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی داراب (فارس) در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با دو تکرار و به مدت دو سال زراعی (95-1394 و 96-1395) تحت شرایط بدون تنش (آبیاری معمول) و تنش خشکی (قطع آبیاری در مرحله گل­دهی) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. سیزده شاخص تحمل به خشکی شامل شاخص تحمل (TOL)، متوسط تولید (MP)، میانگین هندسی عملکرد (GMP)، شاخص تحمل به تنش (STI)، شاخص حساسیت به تنش (SSI)، شاخص تحمل غیرزیستی (ATI)، شاخص درصد حساسیت به تنش (SSPI)، شاخص تولید غیر­تنش- تنش (SNPI)، شاخص پایداری عملکرد (YSI)، درصد کاهش عملکرد (R%) و شاخص عملکرد (YI) بر مبنای عملکرد تحت شرایط بدون­تنش (Yp) و تنش خشکی (Ys) ارزیابی شدند. همچنین شاخص انتخاب ژنوتیپ ایده­آل (SIIG) بر مبنای تمام شاخص­های تحمل به خشکی محاسبه شد. نتایج گروه­بندی این شاخص­ها بر مبنای تجزیه به مولفه­های اصلی، آن­ها را در سه گروه قرار داد و  شاخص­های گروه دو یعنی HM، GMP و STI بیش­ترین همبستگی را با عملکرد دانه تحت  هر دو شرایط تنش (Ys) و بدون­تنش (Yp) نشان دادند. بر اساس شاخص SIIG، ژنوتیپ­های S-92-13 و بهاران با بیش­ترین مقدار SIIG (به­ترتیب 709/0 و 701/0) متحمل­ترین ژنوتیپ­ها به تنش خشکی و ژنوتیپ نارین با کم­ترین مقدار SIIG (324/0) حساس­ترین ژنوتیپ­ها به تنش خشکی بودند. نمودار سه بعدی حاصل از تجزیه به مولفه­های اصلی نیز نشان داد که ژنوتیپ­های G5 (سیروان)، G22 (S-91-15) و G27 (M-92-20) با عملکرد بالاتر از متوسط کل در هر دو شرایط بدون­تنش و تنش خشکی و نیز مقدار SIIG بالا جزء متحمل­ترین ژنوتیپ­ها به تنش خشکی بودند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که می­توان از شاخص SIIG به­عنوان یک روش مناسب برای شناسایی ژنوتیپ­های متحمل به خشکی با کمک شاخص­های دیگر تحمل به خشکی استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Drought tolerance evaluation of bread wheat cultivars and promising lines in warm and dry climate of the south

نویسندگان [English]

  • Syrous Tahmasebi 1
  • Manoochehr Dastfal 2
  • Hassan Zali 1
  • Majid Rajaie 3
1 Research Assist. Prof., Dept. of Seed and Plant Improvement, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Darab, Iran
2 Research Instructor, Dept. of Seed and Plant Improvement, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Darab, Iran
3 Research Assist. Prof., Dept. of Soil and Water Research, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Darab, Iran
چکیده [English]

To determine drought tolerance of bread wheat genotypes, nineteen commercial varieties along with nine promising lines were studied in research field of Darab Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Fars province, Iran, for two cropping seasons (2015 –2017). The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two replications under water stress at flowering stage and non-stress (normal irrigation) conditions. Thirteen  selection indices including stress susceptibility index (SSI), stress tolerance index (STI), tolerance index (TOL), yield index (YI), yield stability index (YSI), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), abiotic-stress tolerance index (ATI), stress susceptibility percentage index (SSPI),stress non-stress production index (SNPI), relative drought index (RDI), harmonic mean (HM) and percentage of yield decrease (R%) were evaluated based on grain yield under drought-stressed and irrigated conditions. Also, selection index of ideal genotype (SIIG) based on all tolerance indices was defined and calculated. The results of grouping these indices based on the principal component analysis (PCA) classified them into three groups and the second group indices (HM, GMP and STI) showed the highest positive correlation with grain yield in both non-stress and drought stress conditions. Based on the results of SIIG index, the S-92-13 and Baharan genotypes with the highest SIIG (0.709 and 0.701, respectively) were the most ideal genotypes and Narin with the lowest SIIG (0.324) was the most susceptible genotype to drought stress. Three dimensional diagram of principal component analysis showed that the genotypes G5 (Sirvan), G22 (S-91-15) and G27 (M-92-20) with the higher grain yield than total average and high SIIG were most tolerant genotypes to drought stress. The results of this research showed that SIIG index could be used as a suitable method for identifying drought tolerant genotypes with the help of other drought tolerance indices.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Selection index of ideal genotype (SIIG)
  • Three dimensional diagram
  • Principal component analysis
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