تاثیر منابع مختلف کودی بر ویژگی‌های کیفی ذرت علوفه‌ای تحت تنش کم آبی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

10.22124/c.2019.12244.1453

چکیده

به­ منظور مطالعه اثر کودهای مختلف بر کاهش آثار تنش کم­آبی در ذرت علوفه‌ای (KSC703)، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1395 در آذربایجان غربی اجرا شد. تیمارهای آبیاری شامل آبیاری در 80 درصد ظرفیت زراعی (آبیاری معمولی) و آبیاری در 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی (تنش کم­آبی) به­عنوان عامل اصلی و منابع کودی شامل شاهد (آب­پاشی)، کود آلی-زیستی، محلول­پاشی کودهای کامل (شیمیایی، نانو) و کاربرد توام 50 درصدی کودها (آلی-زیستی + نانو، آلی- زیستی + شیمیایی، شیمیایی + نانو) به­عنوان عامل فرعی آزمایش در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج مقایسه میانگین‌ها نشان داد که بیش­ترین میزان رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی (کلروفیل­های a و b) تحت شرایط آبیاری معمولی و کاربرد توام 50 درصدی کود‌های شیمیایی+نانو به­دست آمد و سبب شد که بیش­ترین میزان عملکرد علوفه تر (70 تن در هکتار) و خشک (32 تن در هکتار) به­دست آید. این ترکیب تیماری سبب افزایش 47 درصدی عملکرد علوفه تر و خشک ذرت در مقایسه با تیمار کودی شاهد شد. بیش­ترین میزان پرولین از تیمار کود نانو تحت شرایط تنش کم­آبی به­دست آمد. بیش­تر تیمار‌های کودی منجر به افزایش پتاسیم برگ تحت هر دو شرایط آبیاری شدند. همچنین، کاربرد اغلب تیمارهای کودی تحت شرایط آبیاری معمولی، سبب افزایش پروتئین خام، هضم­پذیری ماده خشک، کربوهیدرات‌های محلول در آب و میزان فیبر خام در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد شد. به­طور کلی بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق، کاربرد توام 50 درصدی کودهای شیمیایی + نانو به­دلیل بهبود برخی ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی ذرت علوفه‌ای، به­عنوان ترکیب تیماری تاثیرگذار تحت هر دو شرایط آبیاری تعیین شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of different fertilizer sources on qualitative characteristics of forage maize under water deficit stress conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farzad Ghodrati Aversi 1
  • Jalal Jalilian 2
  • Sina Siavash Moghaddam 3
1 Former M. Sc. Student, Dept. of Plant Production and Genetic, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Plant Production and Genetic, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Plant Production and Genetic, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of different fertilizers on reducing the effects of water deficit stress on forage maize (KSC703), an experiment was carried out as split plots in randomized complete block design with three replications in West Azerbaijan, Iran, in 2016. Irrigation treatments including irrigation at 80% field capacity (normal irrigation) and irrigation at 50% field capacity (water deficit stress) were considered as main factor and fertilizer sources including control (water spraying), organic-biofertilizer, complete fertilizers (chemical, nano) and combined application of 50% fertilizers (organic-biofertilizer + nano, organic-biofertilizer + chemical fertilizer, chemical + nano) as sub-factor. The results of mean comparisons indicated that the highest content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls-a and -b) were observed under normal irrigation conditions and combined application of 50% chemical+nano fertilizers which resulted in the highest fresh (70 t.ha-1) and dry (32 t.ha-1) forage yield. This treatment combination resulted in a 47% increase in fresh and dry forage yield compared to control fertilizer treatment. The highest proline content was obtained from nano fertilizer treatment under water deficit stress conditions. Most fertilizer treatments increased leaf potassium under both irrigation conditions. Also, application of most fertilizer treatments under normal irrigation conditions increased crude protein, dry matter digestibility, water soluble carbohydrates and crude fiber content compared to the control treatment. Based on the results of this research, combined application of 50% chemical+nano fertilizers was determined as an effective fertilizer combination under both irrigation conditions due to improvement of some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of forage maize.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bio-fertilizer
  • Chemical fertilizer
  • Crude protein
  • Proline
  • Nano-fertilizer
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