واکنش عملکرد بلال و برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک ذرت رنگین (Zea mays var. indurate) به مواد ضد تعرق و سطوح مختلف آبیاری تحت خاک پوشه پلاستیک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

10.22124/c.2019.11556.1433

چکیده

به‌­منظور بررسی واکنش عملکرد بلال و برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک ذرت رنگین به سطوح مختلف آبیاری و مواد ضد تعرق تحت خاک­پوشه پلاستیک، آزمایشی مزرعه‌ای در منطقه برازجان استان بوشهر طی دو سال 1396-1395 اجرا شد. آزمایش به‌صورت کرت­های دو بار خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. عامل اصلی آزمایش، آبیاری در سه سطح شامل 1) 25 درصد تخلیه رطوبتی آب قابل استفاده خاک، 2) 40 درصد تخلیه رطوبتی آب قابل استفاده خاک و 3) 60 درصد تخلیه رطوبتی آب قابل استفاده خاک، عامل‌ فرعی در دو سطح شامل خاک­پوشه پلاستیک و بدون خاک­پوشه و عامل‌ فرعی فرعی در سه سطح شامل مواد ضد تعرق کائولین و آترازین و شاهد بدون مصرف ماده ضد تعرق بود. نتایج نشان داد که برهمکنش سه عامل آبیاری، خاک­پوشه پلاستیک و مواد ضد تعرق بر عملکرد بلال تر در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­دار بود. در سطح آبیاری 25 درصد تخلیه مجاز رطوبتی خاک، بیش­ترین عملکرد بلال معادل 8/1759 گرم بر متر مربع در تیمار خاک­پوشه پلاستیک و استفاده از ماده ضد تعرق آترازین و کم­ترین مقدار عملکرد معادل 7/1165 گرم بر متر مربع در تیمار بدون خاک­پوشه و بدون استفاده از ماده ضد تعرق به‌دست آمد. با کاهش رطوبت خاک، استفاده از آترازین منجر به افزایش عملکرد بلال تر بیش­تری در مقایسه با کائولین شد. در شرایط تنش شدید رطوبتی، محتوای کلروفیل و میزان پروتئین محلول برگ کاهش یافت. در مجموع نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تحت شرایطی که میزان رطوبت خاک محدود است، استفاده از خاک­پوشه پلاستیک و ماده ضد تعرق آترازین، جهت تولید بیش­ترین عملکرد کمی و کیفی در ذرت رنکین پیشنهاد می­شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of yield and some physiological traits of rainbow maize to plastic mulch, anti-transpiration materials and irrigation regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Davoud Adelian 1
  • Hooshang farajee 2
  • Amin Salehi 3
  • Ali Moradi 3
1 Ph. D. Candidate, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Yasouj, Yasouj, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Yasouj, Yasouj, Iran
3 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Yasouj, Yasouj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The effects of plastic mulch, anti-transpiration materials and irrigation regimes were evaluated on ear yield and some physiological traits of rainbow maize. The experiment was carried out in Borazjan located in Bushehr Province, Iran, during 2016 and 2017 growing seasons. The experimental design was split-split plots in randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factor of the experiment was irrigation regimes at three levels including: 1) Irrigation after 25% water depletion of field capacity (no water deficit stress), 2) Irrigation after 40% water depletion of field capacity (mild water deficit stress) and 3) Irrigation after 60% water depletion of field capacity (severe water deficit stress), sub-factor at two levels including plastic mulch and without mulch and sub-sub-factor at three levels including kaolin and atrazine anti-transpiration materials and control treatment (without anti-transpiration materials). The results showed that the interaction of irrigation regimes, plastic mulch and anti-transpiration materials was significant on ear yield. At irrigation regime of 25% water depletion, the highest ear yield (1759.8 g.m-2) was found when soil surface was covered with plastic mulch and plants were sprayed with atrazine. On the other hand, the minimum ear yield (1165.7 g.m-2) was obtained when soil surface uncovered and no anti-transpiration materials were applied. With decreasing soil water, atrazine application increased fresh ear yield more than kaolin. Under severe water deficit stress condition (60% water depletion), chlorophyll and protein contents of leaves decreased. In total, the results of this research showed that application of plastic mulch and atrazine anti-transpiration are recommended to produce the highest quantitative and qualitative yield in rainbow maize in regions where water is the main limiting factor.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carotenoids
  • Ear yield
  • Leaf chlorophyll content
  • Rainbow maize
  • Water consumtion
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