گروه‌بندی و بررسی تمایز بین برنج های هوازی و ایرانی از نظر تحمل به تنش اسمزی در مرحله جوانه زنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان

3 دانشیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

چکیده

جوانه­زنی گیاهان از جمله مراحل مهم در طول دوره رشدی آنهاست که اغلب تحت تأثیر تنش­های محیطی قرار می­گیرد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر شناسایی مؤلفه­های جوانه­زنی بود که بیشترین نقش را در تمایز بین ژنوتیپ­های برنج­های هوازی و ایرانی از نظر تحمل به تنش اسمزی داشتند. آزمون استاندارد جوانه­زنی بذر در سه سطح تنش اسمزی (آب مقطر به عنوان محیط نرمال، 8- و 16-  بار حاصل از مانیتول) و با استفاده از 53 ژنوتیپ برنج (شامل 31 ژنوتیپ از برنج­های هوازی و خارجی و 22 رقم از برنج­های ایرانی) انجام شد. گروه‌بندی ژنوتیپ­ها با استفاده از تجزیه خوشه­ای بر اساس متغیرهای جوانه­زنی نشان داد که در شرایط نرمال و تنش 8- بار ژنوتیپ­ها به سه گروه و در شرایط 16- بار به دو گروه قابل تفکیک هستند. تعدادی از ژنوتیپ­ها نیز توانستند در هر سه شرایط در گروه با متوسط ارزش­های بالاتر از میانگین کل قرار گیرند این ژنوتیپ­ها شامل AE6،AE8 ،AE10 ، AE12، AE13، AE15، AE16،AE18 ،AE29  و  AE30بودند که همه جزء ژنوتیپ­های هوازی و خارجی بودند. سپس با در نظر گرفتن دو گروه شامل ژنوتیپ­های هوازی به همراه ارقام خارجی و ایرانی، تجزیه تابع تشخیص انجام شد. آماره لامبدای ویلک برای شرایط نرمال، 8- و 16-  بار به ترتیب 286/0، 213/0 و 397/0 بود و نشان دهنده وجود تفاوت معنی­دار بین دو گروه از لحاظ خصوصیات جوانه­زنی در هر سه شرایط بود. مطابق نتایج، متغیرهای شاخص بنیه بذر، درصد جوانه­زنی، حداکثر درصد مقدار جوانه­زنی، زمان لازم از کاشت تا رسیدن به 90 و 95 درصد حداکثر جوانه­زنی و انرژی جوانه­زنی بیشترین نقش و ضریب آلومتریک کمترین نقش را در تمایز بین دو گروه داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of discriminant between aerobic and Iranian rice based on tolerance to drought stress at germination stage using discrimination function analysis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tayebeh Raiesi 1
  • Atefeh Sabouri 2
  • Hossein Sabouri 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Iran
3 Assoc. Prof., Dept of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Seed germination is an important step in the growth period that often is influenced by environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to identify the germination components with greatest role in discriminant between Iranian and aerobic rice genotypes based on tolerance to drought stress. The standard test for seed germination was conducted in three levels of osmotic stress (distilled water, -8 and -16 bar using manitol) for 53 rice genotypes (including 31 foreign and aerobic genotypes and 22 Iranian varieties). The various germination characteristics were measured. The grouping of genotypes based on germination components, the genotypes were assigned in the three groups at normal and stress conditions -8 bar and two groups at -16 bar respectively. The results showed that some of genotypes were in the group with average values higher than the general average under all the three conditions. These genotypes includes AE6, AE8, AE10, AE12, AE13, AE15, AE15, AE16, AE18, AE29 and AE30, that all were aerobic and foreign genotypes. Then, genotypes were classified as ‘Aerobic and foreign’ and ‘Iranian’ rice and discriminant functionanalysis was performed. Wilk’s Lambda statistic was estimated 0.286, 0.213 and 0.397 at normal condition, -8 and -16 bar, respectively. Showing the significant difference between the two groups based on germination characteristics. According to the results, the variables of seed vigor, germination percentage, the maximum percentage of germination, planting time required to reaching 90% and 95% of maximum germination and germination energy with greatest role and Allometric coefficient with lowest role were effective to distinguish between the two groups.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aerobic genotypes
  • Cluster analysis
  • Germination components
  • distinguishing groups
Abdul-Baki, A. A. and Anderson, J. D.  1973. Vigour deterioration in soybean seeds by multiple criteria. Crop Science 13: 630-633.#Ashraf, C. M. and Waheed, A.  1990. Screening of local exotic of lentil for salt tolerance at two growth stage. Plant and Soil 128: 167-176.#Azad, F. and Tobeh, A. 1993. Efficiency associated with the emergence of wheat dry matter production and some other characteristics, laboratory and greenhouse cultivation. Proceedings  of  6th   Iranian  Congress  of  Crop  Production  and  Plant  Breeding,  September 3-6. Babolsar, University of Mazandaran, Iran. (In Persian).#Baalbaki, R. Z., Zurayk, R. A., Blelk, M. M. and Tahouk, S. N. 1999. Germination and seedling development of drought tolerant and susceptible wheat under moisture stress. Seed Science Technology 27: 291-302.#Blum, A., Sinmena, B. and Ziv, O. 1980. An evaluation of seed and seedling drought tolerance screening tests in wheat. Euphytica 29: 727-736.#Bouman, B. A. M., Xiaoguang, Y., Huaqi, W., Zhiming, W., Junfang, Z., Changgui, W. and Bin, C. 2002. Aerobic Rice (Han Dao): A new way of growing rice in water short areas. Proceedings of the 12th ISCO Conference, May 26-31, Beijing, China.#Camberato, J. and McCarty, B. 1999. Irrigation water quality. Part I: Salinity. South Carolina Turfgrass Foundation News 6 (2): 6-8.#Copland, L. D. and McDonald, M. B. 1995. Seed Science and Technology. Chapman and Hall, New York.#Elias, S. G., Garary, A., Schweitzer, L. and Hanning, S. 2006. Seed quality testing of native species. Native Plant Journal 7 (1): 15-19.#Emam, E. 2007. Cereal Production. Shiraz University Press, Iran. (In Persian).#Eticha, F., Belay, G. and Bekele, E. 2006. Species diversity in wheat landrace populations from two regions of Ethiopia. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53: 387-393.#Farshadfar, E. 1998. Application of Quantitative Genetics in Plant Breeding (Vol. I). Razi University Press. (In Persian).#Fowler, D. B and Gusta, L. V. 1979. Selection for winter hardiness in wheat. I: Identification of genotypic variability. Crop Science 19: 769-772.#Ghoulam, C. and Fares, K. 2001. Effect of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Seed Science and Technology 29: 357-364.3Hampton, J. G. and TeKrony, D. M. 1995. Handbook of vigour test methods. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Zurich, Switzerland.#Harris, D., Tripathi R. S. and Joshi, A. 2000. On-farm seed priming to improve crop establishment and yield in direct-seeded rice in IRRI. International Workshop on Dry-seeded Rice Technology. Held in Bangkok. January 25-28, International Rice Research Institute. Manila, Philippines.#Irannezhad, K. H. and Shahbazian, N. 1996. Resistance of plants to environmental stresses. Carno Press. (In Persian).#Khavazeh, M. 1998. Effect of salinity on germination, growth, and Cl, Na content of four arid and desert species. M. Sc. Dissertation, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran. (In Persian).#Lal R. 1984. Management of soil physical properties for soil and water conservation and seeded preparation in West Africa. An overview of upland rice research. Proceeding of Bouaké, Ivory Coast, Upland Rice Workshop. October 4-8, International Rice Research Institute Manila, Philippines.#Mansourfar, K. 2001. Advanced  statistical methods using applied software. Tehran University Press. (In Persian).#Miura, K., Lin, S. Y., Yano, M. and Negamine, T. 2002. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling seed longevity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 104: 981-986.#Peterson, M. L., Jones, D. B. and Rutger, J. N. 1978. Cool temperature screening of rice lines for seedling vigor. Riso 27: 269-274.#Rascio, A., Carlino, E., De Santis, G. and Di Fonzo, N. 2012. A discriminant analysis to categorize durum wheat varieties in drought-tolerance classes on the basis of morphological and physiological traits. Cereal Research Communications 41: 88-96.#Rashidi, V., Majidi, I., Mohamadi, S. A. and Moghadam Vahed, M. 2007. Determine of genetic relationship in durum wheat lines by cluster analysis and identity of morphological main characters in each gropes. Journal of Agricultural Science 13 (2): 441- 450. (In Persian with English Abstract).#Roumani A. and Ehteshami, S. M. R. 2013. Effect of different levels of salinity stress on germination Indices and seedling growth of fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum L.). Proceeding of 2nd National Congress on Medicinal Plants. May 15-16, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).#Sabouri, H., Nahvi, M., Biabani, A., Torabi, A., Dadras, A. R. and Sabouri, A. 2009. Classification of Iranian rice genotypes based on Fischer linear discrimination functions under different levels of osmotic potential caused by Sorbitol. Electronic Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Golestan 2 (2): 49-65. (In Persian with English Abstract).#Safari, P. Honarnezhad, R. and Esfahani, M. 2007. Evaluation of genetic diversity in groundnut cultivars using canonical discriminant analysis. Iran Agricultural Research 6: 327-334. (In Persian with English Abstract).#Salehian, Kh. 1994. The effects of seed vigor on the emergence, development and grain yield of wheat.  M. Sc. Dissertation. University of Tabriz, Iran. (In Persian).#Soltani, A. and Maddah, V. 2010. Simple, applied programs for education and research in agronomy. Niak Press, Iran. (In Persian).3Souhani, M. M. 2012. Seed Technology (5th ed). University of Guilan Press, Iran. (In Persian).#Vial, L. K. 2007. Aerobic and alternate wet and dry (AWD) rice systems. Nuffield Australia Publishing. Griffith NSW 2680, Australia.#Willenborg, C. J., Wildeman, J. C., Miller, A. K., Rossnagel, B. G. and Shirtliffe, S. J. 2005. Oat germination characteristics differ among genotypes, seed size and osmotic potentials. Crop Science 45: 2023-2029.#Zhang, Z. H., Yu, S. B., Yu, T., Huang, Z. and Zhu, Y. G.  2005. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seedling vigor in rice using recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Field Crops Research 91: 161-170.