ارزیابی صفات فیزیولوژیک، فنولوژیک و مورفولوژیک مرتبط با تحمل به خشکی در گندم نان (Triticum aestivum L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

3 محقق معاونت موسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم سرارود کرمانشاه

4 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

چکیده

این تحقیق به منظور شناسایی ژنوتیپ‌های متحمل به خشکی بر اساس برخی از صفات مهم مورفولوژیک، فنولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک و شاخص‌های تحمل به خشکی در گندم نان اجرا شد. بیست ژنوتیپ گندم نان در دو آزمایش مزرعه‌ای تحت شرایط بدون تنش و تنش خشکی در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در معاونت موسسه تحقیقات دیم سرارود کرمانشاه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل تعداد دانه در سنبله، طول گردن سنبله، طول سنبله، ارتفاع بوته، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد روز تا ظهور سنبله، روز تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه، مساحت برگ پرچم، محتوای آب نسبی برگ، غلظت کلروفیل­های a، b و کل، محتوای پرولین، میزان آب نگهداری شده در برگ­های بریده، پایداری غشاء سلولی و پتانسیل آب برگ بودند. علاوه بر این صفات، شاخص‌های تحمل به خشکی نیز بر اساس عملکرد دانه در دو شرایط رطوبتی محاسبه شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تنوع ژنتیکی معنی­داری بین ژنوتیپ­های مطالعه شده برای اصلاح تحمل به خشکی وجود دارد. نتایج حاصل از ارزیابی شاخص عملکرد (YI)، شاخص پایداری عملکرد (YSI)، بهره­وری متوسط (MP)، میانگین هندسی بهره­وری (GMP)، شاخص تحمل (TOL)، شاخص تحمل به تنش (STI) و شاخص حساسیت به تنش (SSI)، ژنوتیپ‌های نسبتاً یکسانی را به عنوان ژنوتیپ‌های متحمل به خشکی شناسایی کردند، اما با توجه به همبستگی بالا و معنی­دار بین شاخص‌های MP، GMP، STI و HMP با عملکرد دانه در هر دو شرایط بدون تنش و تنش خشکی، این شاخص‌ها جهت دستیابی به ژنوتیپ­های با عملکرد بالا در هر دو شرایط مناسب بودند. بر این اساس، ژنوتیپ‌های 72YRRGP، T179، T189، 914GB، MARAGHEH(1379-80) و رقم سرداری به عنوان ژنوتیپ‌های متحمل به خشکی شناسایی شدند. تجزیه ضرایب همبستگی نیز نشان داد که از بین صفات مورد بررسی، محتوای پرولین برگ، پایداری غشاء سلولی و طول سنبله دارای رابطه قوی‌تری با شاخص تحمل به خشکی (STI) بودند و به عنوان مهم­ترین صفات برای انتخاب ژنوتیپ­های متحمل به خشکی در این تحقیق معرفی می­شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of physiological, phonological and morphological traits related to drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Zarei 1
  • Ezatollah Farshadfar 2
  • Reza Haghparast 3
  • Rahman Rajabi 3
  • Maryam Mohammadi Sarab Badieh 4
1 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Researcher, Dryland Agricultural Research Sub-Institute, Sararood, Kermanshah, Iran
4 M. Sc. Graduate, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

This research was carried out to identify drought tolerant genotypes on the basis of physiological, phonological and morphological traits and drought tolerance indices in bread wheat. Twenty wheat genotypes were assessed in two field experiments based on randomized complete block design with three replications under non-stress and drought stress conditions in Dryland Agricultural Research Sub-Institute, Sararood, Kermanshah. The studied traits were number of grains per spike, peduncle length, spike length, plant height, 1000-grain weight, days to heading, days to physiological maturity, grain yield, flag leaf area, relative water content, a, b and total chlorophyll, proline content, water retained in cut leaves, cell membrane stability and leaf water potential. Futhermore, drought tolerance indices based on grain yield under stress and non-stress conditions were also evaluated. The results showed that there is significant genetic variation among the studied genotypes for improving drought tolerance. Results of the yield index (YI), yield tolerance index (YTI), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), tolerance index (TOL), stability tolerance index (STI) and stress susceptibility index (SSI) identified relatively similar genotypes as the drought tolerant genotypes, but according to the high and significant correlation coefficients among MP, GMP, HMP and STI indices with grain yield under both stress and non-stress conditions, these indices were suitable to identify the high yielding genotypes under both conditions. According to these indices, the genotypes 72YRRGP, T179, T189, 914GB, MARAGHEH(1379-80) and Sardari were detected as the drought tolerant genotypes. Correlation coefficient analysis also revealed that among the evaluated traits, proline content of flag leaf, cell membrane stability and spike length had the stronger relationship with stress tolerance index (STI) and are introduced as the most important traits for selecting drought tolerant genotypes in this research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cell membrane stability
  • Drought tolerance indices
  • Proline content
  • Relative water content
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