ارزیابی آثار اقتصادی- مالی پرورش ماهی در شالیزار (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان‌های فومن، آستانه اشرفیه و رشت در استان گیلان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه توسعه روستایی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 عضو هیئت علمی، مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، رشت، ایران

چکیده

کمبود منابع طبیعی و نگرانی‌های تأمین غذای جمعیت رو به افزایش کره زمین، استفاده بهینه از منابع جهت تأمین امنیت غذایی را الزامی می‌کند. به‌منظور مطالعه آثار اقتصادی- مالی تولید هم‌زمان برنج و ماهی در شرایط شالیزار، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سه شهرستان رشت، آستانه اشرفیه و فومن اجرا شد. عامل اصلی در دو سطح شامل مزرعه با کشت ماهی و مزرعه بدون کشت ماهی و عامل فرعی در شش سطح شامل سه رقم برنج بومی هاشمی، حسن‌سرایی و حسنی و سه رقم اصلاح‌شده خزر، درفک و هیبرید بهار یک بود. هم‌زمان با نشاکاری برنج، اقدام به رهاسازی بچه ماهی‌هایی به وزن حدود 30 تا70 گرم از انواع کپور معمولی، آمور، فیتوفاک و بیگ­هد در استخر شد. حدود 30-25 روز پس از نشاکاری با برداشتن مرز موقت و بالا آوردن آهسته سطح آب مزرعه، امکان حرکت ماهی‌ها به سمت مزرعه برنج فراهم شد. نتایج به‌دست آمده از تجزیه واریانس مرکب، تفاوت بین ارقام مورد مطالعه را برای تمامی صفات و تفاوت بین دو نوع کشت را برای تمامی صفات به غیر از عملکرد دانه و تعداد دانه پوک نشان داد. اثر متقابل نوع کشت × مکان، نوع کشت × رقم و رقم × مکان نیز برای عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار بود. بررسی عملکرد دانه ارقام برنج مورد مطالعه در کشت توأم برنج - ماهی نشان داد که برای ارقام اصلاح­شده برنج، ماهی و برنج (به‌غیر از رقم هیبرید در فومن) دو محصول مکمل و برای ارقام بومی، ماهی و برنج (به‌غیر ار رقم حسنی در رشت) دو محصول رقیب هستند. با توجه به عملکرد ماهی، متوسط سود ارقام اصلاح­شده 3/2 برابر بیشتر از ارقام بومی در هر هکتار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Economic impact of rice-fish farming in paddy (A case study: Fouman, Astaneh-Ashrafieh and Rasht in Guilan province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Amiri 1
  • Majid Nahvi 2
1 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Rural Development, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Scientific Board Member, Rice Research Institute of Iran, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Shortage of natural resources and fear of food supply for growing population in the world caused optimal consumption of resources become great concern. To evaluate economic impact of rice-fish farming under paddy field condition, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out in three locations (Astaneh-Ashrafieh, Fouman and Rasht), Guilan province, Iran. Two field conditions (with and without fish) were considered as main factor and six rice varieties (three local varieties, Hashemi, Hasansaraie and Hassani and three improved cultivars, Khazar, Dorfak and Bahar1-hybrid rice) as sub-factor. Some small fishes weighting about 30-70 g (from the kinds of grass fish, Amour; common fish, Kapour and silver fish, Phytophak and Big head) were released in the pool at the same time with transplanting. About 25-30 days after transplanting, by removing the temporary border made in surrounding of fields and raising the water level of the field, it was possible to move the fishes to the rice fields. Results of the combined analysis of variance showed significant differences among varieties for all studied traits and between two culture types for all studied traits except for grain yield and number of unfilled grains. The interaction effects of culture type × location, culture type × variety and variety × location were also significant for grain yield. Evaluation of the grain yield of rice varieties in rice-fish farming indicated that rice and fish are complementary products for improved cultivars (except Bahar1 in Fouman) and competing products for local varieties (except Hassani in Rasht). With respect to the fish performance, the average profits of improved cultivars was 2.3 times/ ha more than local varieties.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competing products
  • Complementary products
  • Cost effective
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