واکنش عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ارقام گندم (Treaticum aestivum L.) در شرایط رقابت با علف هرز بروموس ژاپنی (Bromus japonicus L.) در منطقه سیستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل

3 استادیار گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

4 دانشیار گروه زیست شناسی دانشکده علوم دانشگاه یزد

5 کارشناس مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی سیستان

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد چهار رقم گندم در شرایط رقابت با علف هرز بروموس ژاپنی، آزمایشی مزرعه­ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سال زراعی 94-1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زابل اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل چهار رقم گندم (هامون، هیرمند، بولانی و کلک افغانی) و هفت سطح علف هرز (صفر، 100، 150، 200، 250، 300 و 400 بوته در متر مربع) بود. در این تحقیق، عملکرد دانه و صفات مرتبط با آن شامل شاخص برداشت، عملکرد زیست­توده، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد پنجه در بوته، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در سنبله، تعداد پنجه بارور در بوته و تعداد سنبله در متر­ مربع اندازه­گیری شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که بین ارقام گندم و بین سطوح تراکم علف هرز از نظر تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه و برهمکنش رقم × تراکم علف هرز، به جز شاخص برداشت، تفاوت معنی­داری وجود داشت. نتایج مقایسه میانگین­ها نیز نشان داد که واکنش ارقام در شرایط رقابت با بروموس ژاپنی متفاوت بود، به طوری که بیشترین تعداد پنجه، ارتفاع بوته، عملکرد زیست­توده و عملکرد دانه از رقم کلک افغانی به دست آمد و وزن خشک و عملکرد بذر بروموس ژاپنی در رقابت با این رقم به مراتب کمتر از سایر ارقام گندم بود. به­طور کلی نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که عملکرد دانه بیشتر از عملکرد زیست­توده تحت ­تأثیر رقابت با بروموس ژاپنی قرار گرفت و شاخص تحمل به تداخل ارقام گندم در صفت عملکرد زیست­توده بیشتر از عملکرد دانه بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The reaction of grain yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in competition with Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus L.) in Sistan region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahbobeh Basiri 1
  • Seyed Mohsen Mousavi-Nik 2
  • Asiyeh Siahmarguee 3
  • Seyed Kazem Sabbagh 4
  • Mansour Sarani 5
1 Ph. D. Student, Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
4 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
5 Expert of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Sistan, Zahedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To determine grain yield and its components of four wheat cultivars in competition with Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus L.), a field experiment was carried out in factorial arrangement using randomized complete blocks design with four replications at the Chah-Nimeh Station, University of Zabol, Iran, in 2014-2015 growing season. The experimental factors were four wheat varieties (Hamoon, Hirmand, Boolani and Kalak Afghani) and weed densities in seven levels of Japanese brome (0, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 plants per m2). In this research, grain yield and its related traits including harvest index, biological yield, number of tiller per plant, 1000-grain weight, number of grain per spike, number of fertile tiller per plant and number of spike per m2 were measured. Results of analysis of variance showed that there were the significant differences among wheat varieties and among weed densities for all studied traits and variety × weed density interaction for all studied traits except for harvest index. The results also indicated that reaction of varieties were significantly different in terms of competition with Japanese brome, so that the highest number of tiller, plant height, biological yield and grain yield were obtained from the Kalak Afghani variety and biologic and grain yield of the Japanese brome in competition with this variety was far less than the other varieties. Totally, results of this research revealed that the grain yield more than the biologic yield of wheat varietieswas affected by competition with Japanese brome and interference tolerance index (ITI) of wheat varieties in biologic yield was more than the grain yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biologic yield
  • Grain yield
  • Interference tolerance index
  • Weed management
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