بررسی کارایی مصرف انرژی ارقام مختلف برنج دانه بلند در استان گلستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی مکانیک بیوسیستم، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی مکانیک بیوسیستم، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مهندسی مکانیک بیوسیستم، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش تحلیل میزان مصرف نهاده­ها، تولید ستانده­ و بررسی کارایی فنی در اراضی شالی‌کاری استان گلستان با استفاده از روش تحلیل پوششی داده­ها است. اطلاعات لازم از طریق پرسش‌نامه و مصاحبه حضوری با 173 شالی­کار گلستانی به روش نمونه‌برداری تصادفی ساده در سال 1392 جمع‌آوری شد. نهاده‌های مورد بررسی شامل نیروی کارگری، ماشین­ها، سوخت دیزل، بذر، سموم شیمیایی، کودهای شیمیایی، کود آلی و الکتریسیته بودند. نتایج نشان داد که مجموع مصرف انرژی در مزارع برای تولید شلتوک برنج 1/99060 مگاژول بر هکتار بود، به­طوری­که میانگین کل انرژی ورودی به مزارع شالی برای تولید برنج دانه­بلند پرمحصول 1/108392 مگاژول بر هکتار و در تولید برنج دانه­بلند مرغوب 3/89835 مگاژول بر هکتار برآورد شد. نهاده سوخت دیزل با 7/38 درصد از کل انرژی ورودی به مزارع شالی به­عنوان پرمصرف‌ترین نهاده انرژی در تولید شلتوک برنج بود. پس از سوخت دیزل، بیش‌ترین سهم از کل انرژی ورودی در تولید شلتوک برنج مربوط به نهاده­های الکتریسیته و ماشین­ها به­ترتیب با 3/29 و 2/19 درصد بودند. میانگین کارایی فنی کشاورزان شالی­کار برنج دانه­بلند مرغوب و برنج دانه­بلند پرمحصول بر مبنای رویکرد نهاده­محور و بازده متغیر نسبت به مقیاس در تحلیل پوششی داده­ها به­ترتیب 95/0 و 94/0 بود. نتایج به‌دست آمده از بهینه­سازی انرژی در این تحقیق نشان داد که می­توان در حدود 14 درصد از کل انرژی ورودی در تولید برنج دانه­بلند مرغوب و 16/18 درصد از کل انرژی ورودی در تولید برنج دانه­بلند پرمحصول را بدون هیچ کاهشی در میزان عملکرد، ذخیره کرد. نهاده انرژی الکتریسیته نیز بیش‌ترین سهم از کل انرژی ذخیره­شده را به خود اختصاص داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the energy consumption efficiency of different long grain rice varieties in Golestan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Taheri-Rad 1
  • Mehdi Khojastehpour 2
  • Abbas Rohani 3
  • Sorur Khoramdel 4
1 Ph. D. Student, Dept. of Biosystems Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Biosystems Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Biosystems Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
4 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to analyze the inputs consumption, outputs production and to evaluate the technical efficiency of each of the farmers using data envelopment analysis method in rice fields of the Golestan province, Iran, in 2013. Data were collected through interviews and questionnaires with 173 paddy farmers of Golestan using simple randomized sampling method. The inputs were labor, machinery, diesel fuel, seed, irrigation, chemical pesticides, chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizer and electricity. The results showed that total energy consumption in the rice fiels for production of paddy was 99060.1 MJ/ha, so that total input energy to the rice fields for production of high-yielding long grain rice and high-grade long grain rice were determined 108392.1 and 89835.3 MJ/ha, respectively. Diesel fuel with 38.7% of the total input energy to paddy fields was the most energy consumed in the production of rice. After diesel fuel, electricity and machines accounted for 29.3% and 19.2% of the total input energy in production of rice, respectively. Average technical efficiency of the farmers producing high-grade long grain rice and high-yielding long grain rice based on the input-oriented approach and variable returns to scale in the data envelopment analysis was 0.95 and 0.94, respectively. The results from the energy optimization in this research showed that about 14% of the total input energy can be stored in the production of high-grade long grain rice, as well as 18.16% of the total input energy in the production of high-yielding long grain rice without any reduction in performance. Electricity energy input was also the largest portion of total stored energy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Decision unit
  • Envelopment analysis
  • Optimization
  • Reference units
  • Scale efficiency
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