بررسی عملکرد و برخی ویژگی های زراعی هیبرید‌های تجاری ذرت (Zea mays L.) در شرایط کم آبیاری در منطقه کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی تحمل به تنش کم­آبی و افزایش بهره­وری آب در هیبریدهای ذرت دانه­ای، هشت هیبرید ذرت (KSC704, KSC705, KSC703, KSC700, KSC647, KSC670, KSC500, KSC400) در سه آزمایش جداگانه هر یک تحت یک رژیم آبیاری در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی اسلام­آباد غرب، استان کرمانشاه، طی سال­های 1392 و 1393 مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. مقدار آب در آزمایش اول برابر با 100 درصد، در آزمایش دوم 85 درصد و در آزمایش سوم 70 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه ذرت در شرایط ایستگاه اسلام­آباد در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر سال و هیبرید برای تعداد روز تا رسیدن فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه در سطح احتمال پنج درصد معنی­دار بود. بیشترین تعداد ردیف دانه در بلال با متوسط 1/18 ردیف به رقم KSC500، بیشترین تعداد دانه در ردیف با 9/36 دانه به رقم KSC705 و بیشترین طول دانه با 8/12 میلی­متر به KSC700 تحت تیمار 100 درصد نیاز آبی تعلق داشت. بیشترین و کمترین مقدار عملکرد دانه به­میزان 3/12 و 6/8 تن در هکتار به­ترتیب تحت شرایط 100 و 70 درصد نیاز آبی ذرت به­دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد دانه ذرت تحت شرایط آبیاری بهینه به اندازه 84/112 و 02/143 درصد به­ترتیب نسبت به شرایط 85 درصد و 70 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه افزایش یافت. هیبریدها برای بیشتر صفات مطالعه شده تفاوت آماری معنی­داری نشان دادند. در مجموع نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که کشت ذرت در شرایط تامین 70 درصد نیاز آبی قابل پیشنهاد نیست، اما با یک مدیریت درست و کارا و با تامین 85 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه در شرایط اقلیمی مناطق معتدل استان کرمانشاه می­توان عملکرد دانه مناسبی تولید کرد. بهترین هیبریدها در شرایط این آزمایش، هیبریدهای KSC500، KSC647، KSC700 و KSC705 بودند که به­همراه رقم شاهد (KSC704) برای کشت در منطقه کرمانشاه پیشنهاد می­شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of yield and some agronomic characteristics of commercial maize hybrids under water deficit conditions in Kermanshah

نویسنده [English]

  • Farhad Sadeghi
Reserch Assist. Prof., Dept. of Horticulture Crops Research, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate the tolerance of water deficit stress and increasing water productivity in maize hybrids, eight maize hybrids (KSC704, KSC705, KSC703, KSC700, KSC647, KSC670, KSC500 and KSC400) were studied in three separate experiments each under an irrigation condition based on randomized complete block design with three replications at West-Islamabad Agricultural Research Station, Kermanshah province, Iran, in 2013 and 2014. The irrigation water content in the first experiment was considered as 100% of maize water supply under the Islamabad station conditions and 85% and 70% in the second and third experiments, respectively. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of year and hybrid for days to physiological maturity and grain yield was significant at 5% probability level. The highest number of row per ear, grain per row and grain length were belonged to KSC500, KSC705 and KSC700 hybrids, with an average of 18.1 rows, 36.9 grains and 12.8 mm, respectively, under 100% of water supply. The highest and lowest grain yield was 12.3 and 8.6 ton.ha-1 under 100% and 70% of water supply, respectively. The results showed that maize grain yield under optimal conditions increased by 112.84% and 143.02% compared to 85% and 70% of plant water supply, respectively. Hybrids showed a statistically significant difference for most studied traits. Totally, the results of this research indicated that cultivation of maize can not be recommended in term of 70% of plant water supply, but with proper and efficient management and providing 85% of the plant water supply in the climatic conditions of the temperate regions of Kermanshah, the suitable grain yield can be produced. In this experiment, the best hybrids were KSC500, KSC647, KSC700 and KSC705, which are suggested along with the control cultivar (KSC704) for cultivation in the Kermanshah region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Irrigation
  • Water productivity
  • Water supply
  • Yield and yield components
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