ارزیابی ژنتیکی عملکرد و برخی صفات مورفولوژیک گندم نان ایرانی تحت شرایط بدون تنش و تنش شوری در مزرعه با استفاده از روش جینکز-هیمن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تنش شوری همواره یکی از جدی‌ترین تهدید‌ها برای افزایش عملکرد گیاهان به‌ویژه گندم نان به­عنوان یکی از مهم­ترین منابع تامین غذای مردم جهان بوده است. آگاهی از نحوه توارث عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد یکی از اولین اصولبه­نژادی برای دستیابی به ارقام متحمل به تنش شوری در گندم است. به­منظور مطالعه نوع عمل ژن­هادر کنترل عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد، هفت رقم ایرانی گندم نان شامل فلات، بم، قدس، روشن، ارگ، کویر و پیشتاز به­همراه نتاج حاصل از تلاقی دی‌آلل کامل آن­ها در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار تحت دو شرایط بدون تنش و تنش شوری در سال 1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مرکز ملی شوری ایران در استان یزد کاشته شدند. با در نظر گرفتن تمام فرضیات برای صفات مختلف گندم، تجزیه واریانس مرکب به روشجینکز-هیمن انجام شد. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که آثار ساده افزایشی (a) و برهمکنشa× محیط برای تمامی صفات شامل عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیست­توده، تعداد پنجه، طول سنبله، طول پدانکل، ارتفاع گیاه و وزن صد دانه معنی‌دار بود. اثر ساده b3 که معادل ترکیب‌پذیری خصوصی در روش یک دی‌آلل است و برهمکنش آن با محیط نیز برای همه صفات معنی‌دار بود. معنی‌داری این دو جزءنشان­دهنده نقش مهم هر دو نوع عمل افزایشی و غالبیت ژن­ها در توارث صفات بود. رقم روشن نیز بهترین والد ترکیب‌‌شونده برای صفات عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیست­توده و تعداد پنجه بود. به­طورکلی،در بیشتر صفات مورد مطالعه در این تحقیق، نوع ژن‌های کنترل‌کننده و رفتار ژنتیکی، ظرفیت ژن‌های غالب و مغلوبدر والدین، آثار مادری وآثار افزایشی و غالبیت تحت دو شرایط محیطیبدون تنشو تنش شوری متفاوت بود. برآورد وراثت‌پذیری عمومی بالا و نیز وراثت‌پذیری خصوصی متوسط تا بالا برای صفات مورد مطالعه نشان­دهنده امیدبخش بودن مواد ژنتیکی مورد مطالعه برای اصلاح و بهبود صفاتتحت شرایط بدون تنش و نیز تحمل به تنش شوری بود. بنابراین،امکان انتخاب ژنوتیپ‌های متحمل برای مقابله با تنش شوری در ارقام گندم نان ایرانی استفاده شده در این تحقیق وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Genetic dissectionof grain yield and some morphological traits in Iranian bread wheat under field normal and salt stress conditions using Jinks-Hayman approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Omidali Akbarpour 1
  • Hamid Dehghani 2
1 Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Salinity stress is one of the serious threats for high productivity of crops, especially in wheat as a key staple food for world population. Understandingthe inheritance of yield and yield components is very important in wheat breeding programs for salinity tolerance. In this research, to evaluatethe gene action of yield and yield components, seven Iranian wheat cultivars including Falat, Bam, Ghods, Roshan, Arg, Kavir and Pishtaz along with their crosses were cultivated in randomized complete block design with three replications under both normal and salinity stress conditions at National Salinity Research Center,Yazd province, Iran,in 2014. All initial assumptions for the traits were indefeasible, therefore combined analysis of variance was done based on Jinks-Hayman approach. The results of analysis of variance showed that all traits including grain yield, biological yield, tiller number, peduncle length, plant height and 100 grain weight had significantly simple additive effect “a” and “a × environment”interaction effect. Also, the simple effect of b3 which is equal to specific combining ability in method 1 diallel analysis, and its interaction with environment were significant for all studied traits. Significant “a” and “b3” terms indicated the important role of additive and dominance effects in the inheritance of trait in both conditions. In this research, the cultivar Roshan had the best combining ability for yield, biomass and tiller number. Generally, the gene type for controlling traits, gene action, potential of dominance and recessive genes in parents,maternal effects and additive and dominance effects were different under twoenvironmental conditions, non-stress and salinity stress. Estimated high broad sense and moderate to high narrow sense heritabilities indicated that thestudied genetic materials could be promisingly used to improve these traits under non-stressconditions aa well as salinitytolerance.Therefore, it ispossibleto select tolerant genotypes to salinity stress in Iranian bread wheat cultivars used in this research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Combining ability
  • Diallel
  • Genotype by environment interaction
  • Gene action
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