مطالعه مقایسه‌ای مصرف اوره در تقسیط با پوشش گوگردی و بازدارنده نیتریفیکاسیون‌ بر بهره‌وری نیتروژن و عملکرد برنج در دو خاک شالیزاری متفاوت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی، موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

2 کارشناس، موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

اگرچه نیتروژن از عوامل موثر در تولید برنج است، ولی بهره‌وری آن در اراضی غرقاب نسبت به اراضی غیرغرقاب کمتر می‌باشد. به­منظور بررسی آثار تقسیط اوره، مصرف اوره با پوشش گوگردی و بازدارنده نیتریفیکاسیونبر عملکرد برنج و مقدار جذب و بهره‌وری نیتروژن در دو مزرعه تحقیقاتی (ایستگاه­های کیسوم و خاک و ‌آب) موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور که دارای خاک‌های متفاوت بودند، آزمایشی با شش تیمار در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و کاشت برنج رقم خزر اجرا شد. در این مطالعه، آثار کود اوره پوشش‌دار و مصرف بازدارنده نیتریفیکاسیون (2 و 5-دی­متیل پارا بنزو کوئینون) همراه با اوره و تقسیط کود اوره طی دو و سه مرحله مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. نتایج نشان داد ‌که در مزرعه کیسوم با خاک دارای بافت سبک، ‌عملکرد ‌کاه، جذب ‌نیتروژن دانه، جذب نیتروژن کاه و جذب کل به­طور معنی‌داری تحت تاثیر تقسیط اوره قرار گرفتند. در این مزرعه، حداکثر جذب ‌نیتروژن دانه‌،‌ کاه و ‌جذب کل‌ ‌با مصرف90 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص ‌در ‌هکتار از منبع اوره طی سه تقسیط مساوی، یک­سوم در هر یک از مراحل نشاکاری، پنجه‌زنی و تشکیل‌خوشه در ‌غلاف (تیمار ‌T5) به­دست آمد، در حالی­که حداکثر عملکرد دانه با مصرف 90 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص ‌در‌ هکتار ‌از منبع کود اوره پوشش­دار در مرحله نشاکاری (تیمار T2) مشاهده شد. در مزرعه خاک ‌‌و آب، اثر تیمارها بر عملکرد دانه، عملکرد‌ کاه و جذب نیتروژن دانه و کاه در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار شد، به­طوری­که‌ بیشترین ‌مقدار عملکرد دانه و کاه و جذب نیتروژن دانه و کاه در تیمار ‌T5 مشاهده شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که برای رقم پرمحصول خزر با طول دوره رشد طولانی در خاک­های با بافت متوسط تا سنگین، تقسیط اوره طی سه مرحله و در خاک­های با بافت سبک تا متوسط، مصرف اوره با پوشش‌گوگردی‌ همراه با روش ‌تقسیط، مناسب‌ترین روش مصرف است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A comparative study of urea application in split with sulfur coated and nitrification inhibitor on nitrogen productivity and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in two different paddy soils

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hasan Shokri Vahed 1
  • Maryam Peykan 2
1 Scientific Board Member, Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
2 B. Sc., Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Despite of nitrogen is an influential factor in rice production, but its use efficiency is usually lower in paddy rice than in upland crops. To determine the effects of split application urea, sulfur coated urea and nitrification inhibitor on yield, uptake and nitrogen use efficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Khazar, an experiment was conducted using six different treatments based on randomized complete block design with three replications at two agricultural research fields with different soils (Kisum and Soil and Water Stations), Rice Research Institute of Iran. In this experiment, the effects of coated urea fertilizer and nitrification inhibitor (2,5- dimethyl parabanzo quionon) together with urea and urea splitting methods at two and three times was studied. The results showed that the straw yield, grain and straw N uptake and total N uptake by plant were significantly influenced by different nitrogen application methods in Kisum station with light soil texture. In this field, the maximum grain and straw N uptake and total N uptake were obtained using 90 kg net N per ha from urea source at three equal splitting, one-third at each transplanting, tillering and panicle initiation stage (T5 treatment), while the maximum grain yield was observed for 90 kg net N per hafrom coated urea at transplanting stage (T2 treatment). In Soil and Water station, the effects of treatments on grain and straw yield and grain and straw N uptake were significant at 1% probability level, so that the highest grain and straw yield and N uptake were observed in T5 treatment. The results of this research indicated that for high yielding and long growth duration variety, Khazar, urea splitting at three stages in soils with moderate to heavy textures and use of sulfur coated urea together with splitting method in soils with light to moderate textures is the most appropriate method of nitrogen application.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological yield
  • Nitrogen recovery
  • Relative productivity
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