تأثیر مایه‌زنی با باکتری استرپتومایسس و مقدار فسفر کودی بر عملکرد زیست‌توده، عملکرد دانه و اجزای عملکرد در گندم و جو

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکده تولید گیاهی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده تولید گیاهی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده تولید گیاهی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده مهندسی آب و خاک، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

5 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

به‌طور معمول، فسفر بعد از نیتروژن مهم­ترین عنصر معدنیمحدودکننده رشد و عملکرد گیاهان زراعی محسوب می‌شود. رایزوباکتری‌های حل‌کننده‌های فسفات می‌توانند شکل‌های غیرقابل جذب فسفر در خاک را به شکل‌ قابل جذب تغییر دهند. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر مایه‌زنی با باکتریاسترپتومایسس‌ (Streptomyces sp.)و مقدار فسفر کودی (صفر، 4/8، 8/16، 2/25 و 6/33 میلی‌گرم فسفر خالص در کیلوگرم خاک خشک معادل صفر، 20، 40، 60 و 80 کیلوگرم فسفر در هکتار) بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه در دو گیاه گندم (رقم مروارید) و جو (رقم صحرا)، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 94-1393 به­صورت گلدانی در قالب فاکتوریل با طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار درپردیس جدید دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعیگرگاناجرا شد. یافته‌هایتحقیق نشان‌دهنده‌ افزایش خطی معنی‌دار عملکرد دانه گندم و جو با افزایش مقدار فسفر کودی بود. عملکرد دانه گندم و جو در هنگام عدم استفاده از کود فسفر 8/9 گرم در گلدان (معادل حدود 2352 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود که به ازای مصرف هر کیلوگرم فسفر کودی، عملکرد دانه به مقدار 13/0 گرم در گلدان (معادل 26 کیلوگرم در هکتار) افزایش یافت. عملکرد دانه در مقدار مصرف 80 کیلوگرم در هکتار فسفر به 2/20 گرم در گلدان (معادل 4848 کیلوگرم در هکتار) رسید که نسبت به تیمار شاهد 106 درصد افزایش نشان داد. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش عملکرد دانه در جو به‌طور عمده از طریق افزایش تعداد سنبله در بوته و تعداد سنبلچه در سنبله و در گندم به‌طور عمده از طریق افزایش تعداد سنبلچه در سنبله و تعداد دانه در سنبلچه اتفاق افتاده است و تغییر وزن دانه نقش قابل توجهی در تغییر عملکرد دانه نداشت. همچنین یافته‌های مطالعۀ حاضر حاکی از افزایش خطی عملکرد زیست‌توده تحت تأثیر مصرف کود فسفر، مایه‌زنی با باکتری و برهمکنش آن‌ها بود. نتایج به‌وضوح نشان داد کهتأثیر مایه‌زنیبر رشد گیاه در مقادیر کمتر مصرف کود فسفر بیشتر از زمانیبود که مقدار بیشتری کود فسفر مصرف شده باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of inoculation with Streptomyces and phosphorus fertilizer rate on biologic yield, grain yield and yield components in wheat and barley

نویسندگان [English]

  • Toktam Khosravian 1
  • Ebrahim Zeinali 2
  • Asiyeh Siahmarguee 3
  • Reza Ghorbani Nasrabadi 4
  • Seyyed Majid Alimagham 5
1 Ph. D. Student, Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
3 Assis. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
4 Assis. Prof., Dept. of Soil Science, Faculty of Water and Soil Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
5 Ph. D. Student, Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Usually, phosphorus after nitrogen is the most important mineral nutrient limiting growth and yield of crops. Phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria can change non-absorbable forms of phosphorus to absorbable forms. To evaluate the effect of inoculation with Streptomyces sp. bacterium and phosphorus (P) fertilizer rate (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg P per ha) on yield and yield components in wheat (variety Morvarid) and barley (variety Sahra ), a pot experiment was conducted as factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with four replications in new site of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran, during 2014-2015 growing season. Results of this study revealed a significant linear increase in grain yield of wheat and barley by increase in the fertilizer phosphorus rate. The results showed that grain yield in control treatment (without P fertilizer) was 9.8 gr per pot (2352 kg.ha-1), but with increasing one kg P fertilizer, grain yield increased to 0.13 gr per pot (26 kg.ha-1). With the use of 80 kg.ha-1 P fertilizer, grain yield increased to 20.2 gr per pot (4848 kg.ha- 1), that represents a 106% increase in grain yield than the control treatment. The results showed that increasing grain yield in barley was mainly due to increase in the number of spike per plant and the number of spikelet per spike, but in wheat mainlt due to increase in the number of spikelet per plant and number of grain per spikelet, and the role of grain weight in the changes of grain yield was negligible. Also, the findings of this study showed a linear increase in plant biologic yield due to the use of P fertilizer rate, bacteria inoculation and their interactions. The results clearly showed that the effect of inoculation on the plant growth in the lower amounts of phosphorus fertilizer was more than the higher amounts of phosphorus fertilizer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain number
  • Grain weight
  • Harvest index
  • Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria
  • Spike number
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