هتروزیس و تجزیه دای آلل برای عملکرد و برخی صفات مورفولوژیک در برنج (Oryza sativa L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی.

3 استادیار پژوهش، بخش اصلاح بذر، موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی ترکیب­پذیری ارقام، نوع عمل ژن­ها و هتروزیس عملکرد و برخی صفات مورفولوژیک در برنج، نتاج F2حاصل از تلاقی دای‌آلل 6×6 به‌صورت طرح نیمه دای‌آلل به­همراه والدین آن‌ها در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه آزمایشی مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور در سال 1394کشت شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس برای تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه نشان داد که اختلاف بین ژنوتیپ­ها از نظر تمامی صفات معنی­دار بود. نتایج تجزیه دای­آلل به روش دوم گاردنر-ابرهارت نشان داد که اثر واریته در تمامی صفات و اثر هتروزیس، هتروزیس متوسط، هتروزیس واریته و هتروزیس خصوصی برای صفات عملکرد، روز تا ظهور خوشه و طول برگ پرچم معنی­دار بود. برای صفت عملکرد، والدهای IR50 و RI18447-2واجد بیشترین مقادیر ترکیب­پذیری عمومی مثبت و معنی­دار بودند و بیشترین مقدار ترکیب­پذیری خصوصی در تلاقی IR50×RI18430-46 مشاهده شد. نتایج تجزیه دای­آلل به روش سوم گاردنر-ابرهارت وجود آثار افزایشی و غیرافزایشی در کنترل ژنتیکی صفات عملکرد، روز تا ظهور خوشه، ارتفاع بوته و تعداد خوشه­چه را آشکار ساخت. دامنه هتروزیس برتر و هتروزیس نسبی در صفت عملکرد به‌ترتیب بین 03/35- تا 16/17 و 59/28- تا 01/24 درصد متغیر بود. بیشترین کاهش هتروزیس برتر و هتروزیس نسبی در صفت ارتفاع بوته به‌ترتیب با 36/14- و 73/12- درصد بود. دامنه هتروزیس برتر برای صفت تعداد خوشه­چهدر خوشه بین 44/33- تا 58/1درصد متغیر بود. با توجه به ترکیب‌پذیری، وجود آثار افزایشی و هتروزیس مناسب در بیشتر صفات مطالعه شده، امکان اصلاح این صفات از طریق هر دو روش گزینش و تولید هیبرید در جمعیت مورد مطالعه وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Heterosis and diallel analysis for yield and some morphological traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Haghighi Hasanalideh 1
  • Ezatollah Farshadfar 2
  • Mehrzad Allahgholipour 3
1 Ph.D. student of Plant Breeding, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University.
3 Research Assist. Prof., Dept. of Seed Improvement, Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the combining ability, gene action and heterosis for morphological traits in rice, F2 progenies of a 6×6 half diallel crosses with their parents were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications at Rice Research Institute of Iran, Rasht, Iran, in 2015. Analysis of variance indicated that genotypes were significantly different for all measured traits. The results of diallel analysis by the second method of Gardner-Eberhart revealed that the variety effect was significant for all the studied traits. The effects of heterosis, average heterosis, variety heterosis and specific heterosis was significant for grain yield (GY), days to heading (DTH) and flag leaf length (FLL). Parents IR50 and RI18447-2 had the greatest positive and significant amount of general combining ability. The highest amount of specific combining ability was observed for IR50×RI18430-46 cross. Analysis of diallel by the third method of Gardner-Eberhart demonstrated existence of both additive and non-additive effects in genetic control of GY, DTH and spikelet’s number (SN). Heterobeltiosis and relative heterosisfor GY ranged from-35.03% to 17.16% and -28.59% to 24.01%, respectively. The sharpest decline in heterobeltiosis and relative heterosis for plant height (PH) was -14.36% and -12.73%, respectively. For panicle length (PL) no significant amounts of heterosis found in crosses. The range of heterobeltiosisfor SN was from -33.44% to 1.58%. According to combining ability, presence appropriate amounts of additive gene effects and heterosis for most of the studied traits, it is possible to breed these traits by using both the selection and hybrid production methods in the studied population.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gardner-Eberhart method
  • Heterobeltiosis
  • Relative heterosis
  • Variety effect
  • Variety heterosis
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