برآورد پارامترهای ژنتیکی برخی صفات مرفوفیزیولوژیک گندم نان با استفاده از تلاقی‌های دای‌آلل

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گچساران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گچساران، ایران

4 دانشیار پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مراغه، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور برآورد پارامترهای ژنتیکیبرخیصفات مورفوفیزلوژیک در گندم نان،شش ژنوتیپگندم و بذرهای حاصل از تلاقی دای‌آلل یک‌‌طرفهآن­ها در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 93-1392 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم گچساران ارزیابی شدند. بررسی ضریب رگرسیون نشان داد که فرضیات مدل افزایشی- غالبیت برای صفات تعداد روز تا ظهور سنبله و رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک، ارتفاع بوته، طول سنبله، طول خروج سنبله از برگ پرچم و وزن هزار دانه وجود نداشت. هر دو اثر افزایشی و غیرافزایشی در کنترل ژنتیکی صفات قدرت رشد گیاهچه، طول دوره پر شدن دانه، محتوی کلروفیل، دمای کانوپی، طول دانه و عملکرد دانهنقش داشتند، اما سهم اثر غیرافزایشی نسبت به جزء افزایشی ارجحیت داشت. متوسط درجه غالبیت ژن­ها برای اینصفات به­ترتیب برابر با 02/1، 05/1، 32/1، 41/1، 39/1 و 62/1 بود که عمل فوق غالبیت ژن‌ها را در کنترل این صفات نشان می­دهد. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل گرافیکی هیمن نشان داد که افزایش قدرت رشد گیاهچه، عملکرد دانه، طول دانه و دمای کانوپی، به­وسیله آلل‌های مغلوب و افزایش محتوی کلروفیلتوسط آلل‌های غالب کنترل می‌شود. نقش عمل غیرافزایشی و فوق غالبیت ژن­ها در کنترل عملکرد دانه، نشان‌دهنده امکان استفاده از پدیده هتروزیس در اصلاح این صفت مهم در ارقام جدید گندم می‌باشد. تلاقی‌هایDAMARA-6 ICW99-0427-8AP-0AP-0AP-3AP-0AP× کوهدشت وPASTOR/2*SITTA//PBW343*2/KUKUNA× کوهدشت، با توجه به برخورداری از هتروزیس بالا و نیزبیشترین میزان عملکرد دانه در بین ژنوتیپ‌های مورد مطالعه در این تحقیق،جهت استفاده از پدیده هتروزیسدر برنامه‌های اصلاح عملکرد دانه در گندم پیشنهاد می‌‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluatingthe genetic parameters for some morpho-physiological traits in wheat using diallel analysis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohtasham Mohammadi 1
  • Peyman Sharifi 2
  • Rahmatallah Karimizadeh 3
  • Mozafar Rostaei 4
1 Research Prof., Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Gachsaran, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
3 Research Assist. Prof., Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Gachsaran, Iran
4 Research Assoc. Prof., Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Maragheh, Iran
چکیده [English]

To assessthe genetic parameters of morpho-physiological traits in wheat, six bread wheat genotypes and their partial diallel progenies were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications at GachsaranAgricultural Research Station, Gachsaran, Iran,in 2013-14 cropping season. Regression coefficient indicated there were not the assumptions of additive-dominance model for number of days to flowering and maturity, plant height, spike length, 1000-grain weight and extrusion length of spike from flag leaf. Both dditive and non-additive gene effects played an important role in controlling the seedlinggrowth vigor, grain-filling period, chlorophyll content, canopy temperature, grain length and grain yield, but the role of non-additive was superior the additivegene effects. The average degree of dominance were 1.02, 1.05, 1.32, 1.41, 1.39 and 1.62 for above mentioned traits, respectively, which showed the role of over-dominance gene action in their controles. The results of Hayman’s graphical analysis indicated that increasingseedling growth vigor, grain yield, grain length and canopy temperature by recessive alleles and chlorophyll content by dominant alleles were controlled. The role of non-additive and over-dominance gene action in controlling grain yield showed the possibility of using the heterosis to improve this important trait in new wheat varieties. The hybridsKouhdasht × (DAMARA-6 ICW99-0427-8AP-0AP-0AP-3AP-0AP) and Kouhdasht × (PASTOR/2*SITTA// PBW343*2/KUKUNA) due to the high heterosis and also the highest grain yield among the all studied genotypes in this research,it is recommended to use heterosis phenomenon for increasing grain yield in wheat breeding programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Degree of dominance
  • Hayman’s graphical analysis
  • Heritability
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