ارزیابی تناسب اراضی شهرستان گنبد کاووس جهت کشت جو دیم با استفاده از تحلیل‌ سلسله مراتبی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت،دانشکده تولید گیاهی،دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

3 استاد، گروه زراعت،دانشکده تولید گیاهی،دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

به­ منظور ارزیابی تناسب اراضی کشاورزی شهرستان گنبد کاووس جهت کشت جو دیم، از فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) و تحلیل‌های مکانی سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) استفاده شد. برای این منظور، ابتدا نیازهای زراعی- بوم­شناختی گیاه جو با استفاده از منابع علمی تعیین و سپس بر اساس آن، نقشه­های موضوعی مورد نیاز تهیه شدند. متغیرهای محیطی مورد مطالعه از جمله دمای متوسط سالانه، دمای کمینه سالانه، دمای بیشینه سالانه، دمای مطلوب جوانه‌زنی، دمای مطلوب سبنله‌دهی، دمای مطلوب پرشدن دانه، متوسط تابش سالانه، بارش سالانه، بارش پاییزه، بارش بهاره، بارش اردیبهشت ماه، درصد شیب، جهت شیب، ارتفاع از سطح دریا، ماده آلی، شوری وpH  در نظر گرفته شدند. پس از تهیه این لایه­ها، کار طبقه­بندی و رتبه­بندی هر لایه در چهار طبقه (بسیار مستعد، مستعد، نیمه ­مستعد و غیر مستعد) صورت گرفت. از فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی برای تعیین وزن معیارها از طریق تجزیه و تحلیل پرسشنامه­های AHP استفاده شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که 79/35 و 10/24 درصد از زمین­های کشاورزی شهرستان گنبد کاووس به ­ترتیب جهت تولید جو در پهنه­‌های بسیار مستعد و مستعد قرار دارند. این مناطق در بخش­های جنوبی و شمال شرقی شهرستان شناسایی شدند. در این اراضی محدودیتی جهت کشت جو دیم از نظر انواع متغیرهای بارش و دما، درصد شیب، ارتفاع از سطح دریا و عوامل خاکی وجود نداشت. در این ارزیابی، پهنه‌های نیمه ­مستعد (19/24 درصد) و غیرمستعد (92/15 درصد) به قسمت­های مرکزی و شمالی شهرستان اختصاص یافت. این مناطق حداقل از نظر یک متغیر محیطی دارای محدودیت بودند. از عوامل محدودکننده کشت جو دیم در این مناطق، توزیع نامناسب بارش به­خصوص بارش بهاره و بارش اردیبهشت ماه، درصد ماده آلی کم، شوری زیاد خاک و نیز شیب بیشتر از 16 درصد را می‌توان نام برد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Land suitability evaluation of Gonbad–e-Kavous township for rainfed barley cultivation using analytical hierarchy process

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shiva Farhadian Azizi 1
  • Hossein Kazemi 2
  • Afshin Soltani 3
1 M.Sc. Student,Dept. of Agronomy,Faculty of Crop Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources,Gorgan, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
3 Prof.,Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Toevaluate land suitability in Gonbad-e-Kavous township for rainfed barley cultivation, spatial analysis of geographic information system (GIS) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) were used. For this purpose, firstly agroecological requirements of crop wasidentified according to scientific resources. Thematic requirement maps were then provided. Studied environmental variables were annual, autumn, spring and May precipitations, average, minimum and maximum temperatures, germination temperature, the maximum temperature in heading and grain filling stages, slope percent, elevation, slope aspect, OM, pH, and EC. Then, each layer was classified into four classes (high suitable, suitable, less suitable and non-suitable). The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the weight of criteria by using the questionnaires analysis sheet. In this study, the results showed that about 35.79% and 24.10% of agricultural lands in Gonbad–e-Kavous township were located in the high suitable and suitable zones for rainfed barley, respectively. These regions were identified in the south of this township. In these zones, there are not limitation factors for barley cultivation according to precipitationand temperatures variables, slope percent, elevation and soil characteristics. In this evaluation, the less suitable (24.19%) and non-suitable (15.92%) regions were located in the central, north, and northeast of Gonbad–e-Kavous. In addition,these areas were faced by at least one limitation factors in environmental variable. Results showed that the limitation factors were including: non-suitable May and spring precipitations, low content of organic matter and high EC and slope percent>16.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • AHP
  • Environmental variables
  • Geostatistic
  • GIS
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