ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی ارقام گندم نان اصلاح شده در کشور از نظر صفات مرتبط با جوانه زنی تحت شرایط نرمال و تنش اسمزی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، ایران

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، ایران

3 دانشیار پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، ایران

5 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، ایران

چکیده

گندم نان یکی از مهم‌‍‍‌ترین محصولات غذایی در ایران و جهان است که هر سال ارقام زیادی از آن اصلاح و معرفی می‌شوند. به­منظور بررسی تنوع صفات مرتبط با جوانه‌زنی در شرایط بدون تنش و تنش اسمزی در 30 رقم گندم نان که طی سال‌های 1389-1309 معرفی شده‌اند، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتورها شامل 30 رقم و تنش اسمزی (صفر، 2-، 4- و 6- بار شبیه‌سازی شده با PEG6000) بود. نتایج نشان داد که رقم قدیمی زمستانه امید در هر دو شرایط غیرتنش و تنش 6- بار دارای بیشترین مقدار وزن خشک زیست‌توده بود. از نظر شاخص حساسیت محاسبه شده بر اساس وزن خشک زیست‌توده، ارقام سبلان، زارع و طبسی متحمل‌ترین و ارقام نوید، مغان ۲ و گلستان، حساس‌ترین رقم‌ها بودند. در تجزیه خوشه‌ای تحت شرایط تنش 6- بار، ژنوتیپ‌های سبلان و امید با فاصله زیاد از دیگر ژنوتیپ‌ها در خوشه جداگانه‌ای قرار گرفتند. مقایسه واریانس ژنتیکی بین ارقام آزاد شده قدیمی و ارقام جدید نشان داد که برای صفات طول ساقه­چه، وزن خشک ساقه­چه و نسبت وزن خشک ریشه­چه به ساقه­چه، واریانس ژنتیکی به­طور معنی‌داری در ارقام جدید کاهش یافته است. این نتیجه نشان داد که ارقام جدیدتر در مقایسه با ارقام قدیمی‌تر در مورد این صفات تنوع ژنتیکی کمتری داشتند. بنابراین توصیه می‌شود در برنامه‌های به‌نژادی از منابع ژنتیکی متنوع‌تری  استفاده شود.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of genetic diversity of Iranian bread wheat genotypes considering germination related traits under normal and osmotic stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Ramshini 1
  • Tahere Mirzazadeh 2
  • Mohsen Esmaeilzadeh Moghaddam 3
  • Fatemeh Amini 4
  • Reza Amiri 5
1 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran
2 Graduated M. Sc., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran
3 Research Assoc. Prof., Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
4 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran
5 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important crop in Iran and world which many new cultivars with improved agricultural traits are developed by plant breeders every year. In order to evaluate the genetic diversity of 30 bread wheat genotypes considering germination related traits under normal and osmotic stress released during 1930-2010 in Iran, an experiment was carried out as factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The studied factors were 30 wheat genotypes and four drought stress conditions simulated by PEG (0, -2, -4 and -6 bar). The results showed that the old winter cultivar, Omid, had the highest biomass dry weight in both control and -6 bar drought stress conditions. According to the sensitivity index calculated based on biomass dry weight, the cultivars Sabalan, Zare and Tabasi were the most tolerant and Navid, Moghan-2 and Golestan were the most sensitive genotypes. In cluster analysis under -6 bar drought stress conditions, the genotypes Sabalan and Omid, away from the other genotypes, were grouped in a separate cluster. Comparison of the genetic variance between old released cultivars and new cultivars showed that the genetic variance has significantly decreased in new cultivars for shoot length, shoot dry weight and root to shoot dry weight ratio. This result indicated that the new cultivars had less variation than the old cultivars. Therefore, it is recommended that more diverse genetic resources be used in breeding programs to avoid genetic homogeneity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biomass
  • Polyethylene glycol (PEG)
  • Root characteristics
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