واکنش عملکرد و فیزیولوژی ذرت شیرین به کاربرد کود اوره پوشش دار در سطوح مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، اهواز، ایران

2 استاد، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، اهواز، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه علوم گیاهی، دانشکده علوم زیستی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار،گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی اثر کود نیتروژن با پوشش پلیمر زیستی بر صفات فیزیولوژیک مؤثر بر عملکرد ذرت شیرین تحت شرایط کم آبیاری، آزمایشی به‌صورت نوارهای خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان در سال زراعی1394انجام شد. عامل آبیاری در سه سطح (100، 80 و 60 درصد نیاز آبی) در نوارهایی در طول بلوک و کود اوره در شش سطح (شاهد بدون کود، کود اوره خالص، کود اوره با پوشش گوگردی، کود اوره با پوشش نشاسته، کود اوره با پوشش آگار و کود اوره با پوشش کیتین)درنوارهایی عمود بر تیمار آبیاری در هر بلوک مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر آبیاری و نوع کود نیتروژن پوشش­دار بر رطوبت نسبی برگ، کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، شاخص سطح برگ، پیچش برگ، عملکرد اقتصادی بلال و نیز برهمکنش این دو عامل بر کلروفیل a و b و عملکرد دانه در هکتار معنی­دار بود. استفاده از کود اوره پوشش­دار به­طور متوسط موجب افزایش 41/29، 06/15، 88/24، 11/34 و 88/14درصد به­ترتیب در میزان شاخص سطح برگ، رطوبت نسبی، پیچش برگ، عملکرد اقتصادی بلال در هکتار و علوفه تر در هکتار نسبت به مصرف اوره خالص شد. همچنین بیشترین میزان کلروفیل a و b و عملکرد دانه در هکتار از تیمار کود اوره با پوشش کیتین به­همراه آبیاری کامل و کمترین آن از ترکیب تیماری کود شاهد با 60 درصد نیاز آبی به­دست آمد. کاهش آبیاری به­میزان 40 درصد موجب کاهش 89/15، 02/31، 85/42و 33/40 درصدیبه­ترتیب در رطوبت نسبی برگ، شاخص سطح برگ، پیچش برگ و عملکرد اقتصادی بلال در هکتار نسبت به آبیاری کامل شد. بیشترین عملکرد اقتصادی بلال با میانگین 6/10238 کیلوگرم در هکتار از تیمار آبیاری کامل و 3/9853 کیلوگرم از تیمار کود اوره با پوشش کیتین و کمترینعملکردبلال از تیمار 60 درصد نیاز آبی به­همراه تیمارکودی شاهد به­دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of yield and physiology of sweet corn to coated urea fertilizer under different levels of irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasrin Farid 1
  • Seyed Ataollah Siadat 2
  • Mohammad Reza Ghalamboran 3
  • Mohammad Reza Moradi Telavat 4
1 Ph.D.Student, Dept. of Plant Production and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture and Natural Resources Science University of Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Plant Production and GeneticEngineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture and Natural Resources Science University of Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biology Sicences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
4 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Plant Production and GeneticEngineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture and Natural Resources Science University of Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of biopolymer coated urea fertilizer on physiological traits related to yield of sweet corn under deficit irrigation, an experiment was carried out in strip split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications in Agriculture and Natural Resources Science University of Khuzestan, Iran, in 2016. Irrigationin three levels (100, 80 and 60% water requirement) in length of blocks and urea fertilizer in six levels (without fertilizer as check treatment, pure urea, sulfur-coated urea, starch-coated urea, agar-coated urea and chitin-coated urea) in vertical strips to irrigation in each block were used. The results showed that the effect of irrigation and type of coated nitrogen fertilizer on leaf relative humidity, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, leaf area index, leaf rolling, ear yield, and interaction of irrigation × fertilizer on chlorophylla and b and grain yield per hectare was significant. The application of coated urea fertilizer increased 29.41, 15.06, 24.88, 34.11 and 14.88 percent on average in leaf area index, relative water content, leaf rolling, ear yield per hectare and fresh forage yield per hectare, respectively, compared to pure urea fertilizer. Also, the highest values of chlorophyll a and b and grain yield per ha were obtained from chitin coated urea fertilizer together with full irrigation (100% water requirement) and their lowest values were from the check fertilizer (without urea)with 60% water requirement. The reduction of 40% in irrigation decreased 15.89%, 31.02%, 42.85% and 40.33% in relative water content, leaf area index, leaf rolling and ear yeild per hectar, respectively, compared to full irrigation. The highest economic ear yield with average of 10238.6 kg/ha and 9853.3 kg/hawas obtained from full irrigation and chitin coated urea,respectively, and the lowest ear yieldwas obtained from 60% water requirement with check fertilizer treatment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • Ear yield
  • Leaf area index
  • Leaf rolling
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