تأثیر سالیسیلیک اسید بر ویژگی های مورفولوژیک و عملکرد ارقام سورگوم (Sorghum bicolor L.) تحت رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر، کرمان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

      به­منظور ارزیابی تأثیر سالیسیلیک ­اسید بر ویژگی­های مورفولوژیک و عملکرد ارقام سورگوم تحت شرایط تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خردشده-فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. کرت­های اصلی شامل سه سطح آبیاری بر اساس تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر (40، 80و 110 میلی­متر) و ترکیب غلظت­های سالیسیلیک اسید در سه سطح (صفر، یک و دو میلی مولار) و ارقام سورگوم در دو سطح (اسپیدفید و پگاه) به‌عنوان کرت­های فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تأثیر تنش خشکی و سالیسیلیک اسید بر صفات موردبررسی، به جز صفت شاخص برداشت، معنی­دار بود. برهم‌کنش آبیاری و سالیسیلیک اسید بر عملکرد دانه و تعداد برگ و برهمکنش آبیاری و رقم بر تعداد برگ معنی­دار بود. بین ارقام سورگوم نیز تفاوت معنی­داری برای صفات موردبررسی مشاهده شد ورقم اسپیدفید نسبت به رقم پگاه برتری خود را نشان داد. تنش خشکی شدید باعث کاهش ارتفاع بوته، تعداد برگ، عملکرد علوفه‌تر، عملکرد علوفه خشک، وزن هزار دانه، کلروفیل، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد زیستی به­ترتیب به­میزان 5/41، 7/37، 2/33، 0/26، 7/53، 7/33 و 5/32 درصد نسبت به شاهد شد. نتایج نشان داد که محلول‌پاشی با غلظت دو میلی‌مولار سالیسیلیک اسیدبیشترین تأثیر را بر صفات موردبررسی داشت وموجب افزایش ارتفاع بوته، عملکرد علوفهتر، عملکرد علوفه خشک، کلرووفیل، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد زیستی و عملکرد دانه به­ترتیب به­میزان 0/15، 1/8، 2/8، 7/16، 3/15، 3/9 و 1/19 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد شد. همچنین،کاربرد سالیسیلیک ­اسید نقش مؤثری در کاهش آسیب­های ناشی از تنش خشکیبر عملکرد ارقام سورگوم داشت، به­طوری­که محلول‌پاشیدو میلی‌مولار سالیسیلیک ­اسید تحت شرایط تنش خشکی شدید به­میزان 37 درصد اثر تنش خشکی را بر عملکرد دانه کاهش داد و بنابراین کاربرد آن تحت شرایط محدودیت آب توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of salicylic acid on morphological characteristics and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) cultivars under different irrigation regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Ahmadizadeh 1
  • Gholamreza Khajoei-Nejad 2
  • Roohollah Abdoshahi 2
1 M. Sc. Student, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on morphological characteristics and yield of sorghum under drought stress, an experiment was conducted as split plot-factorial in randomize complete block design with three replications. Irrigation in three levels based on evaporation of40, 80 and 110 mm from the evaporation pan were considered as main plots and combinations of salicylic acid concentrations (0, 1, 2 mM) and sorghum cultivars (Speedfeed and Pegah) were considered as factorial in sub plots. The results showed that the effect of drought stress and SA were significant for all studied traits except for harvest index. The interaction of irrigation×SA was significant for grain yield and number of leaf as well as the interaction of irrigation×cultivar was significant for number of leaf. Also, significant differences were observed between sorghum cultivars for all studied traitsand Speedfeed cultivar had better performance compared with Pegah.Severe drought stress reduced plant height, leaf number, fresh forage yield, dry forage yield, seed weight, chlorophyll, grain yield and biological yield about 41.5, 37.7, 33.1, 26.0, 53.7, 33.7 and 32.5 percent, respectively,compared to control treatment. The results showed that application of 2 mM SA had the greatest impact on evaluated traits, so thatapplication of 2 mM SA caused an increasing of 15.0, 8.1, 8.2, 16.7, 15.3, 9.3 and 19.8 percent in plant height, fresh forage yield, dry forage yield, chlorophyll content (SPAD), 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield, respectively,compared to the control. Also, foliar application ofSA has an effective role (37 %) in reducing drought stress damages on yield of sorghum cultivars, so that application of 2 mM SA under severe drought stress conditions reduced the effect of drought stress on grain yield about 37 percent. Therefore, foliar application of SA is recommended under water deficit conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • Evaporation
  • Forage yield
  • Grain yield
  • Harvest index
Abdul Jaleel, C., Manivannan, P., Wahid, A., Farooq, M., Somasundaram, R. and Panneerselvam, R. 2009. Drought stress in plants: A review on morphological characteristics and pigments composition. International Journal of Agricultural Biology 11: 100-105.##Abedi, T. and Pakniyat, H. 2012. Antioxidant enzyme changes in response to drought stress in ten cultivar of oilseed rap (Brassica napus L.). Plant Breeding 46 (4): 27-34.##Al-Hakimi, A. M. A. 2008. Effect of salicylic acid on biochemical changes in wheat plants under khat leaves residues. Plant, Soil and Environment 54 (7): 288-293.##Amin, A. A., Rashad, E. S. M. and Garibay, F. A. E. 2008. Changes in morphological, physiological and reproductive characters of wheat plants as affected by foliar application with salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. Aust Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 2 (2): 252-261.##Agarwal, S., Sairam, R. K., Srivasta, G. C. and Meena, R. C. 2005. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activity and oxidative stress by abscisic acid and salicylic acid in wheat genotypes. Biologia Plantarum 49 (4): 541-550.##Ardakani, M. R., Abbaszadeh, A., Sharifi Ashorabadi, M. H. Lebaschi, and Paknejad, F. 2007.##The effect of water deficit on quantitative and qualitative characters of balm (Melissa officinalis L.).##Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 23 (2): 251-261. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Arzandi, B. 2014. The effect of salicylic acid different levels on two Coriandrum sativum varieties under deficit irrigation condition. European Journal of Zoological Research 3 (1): 118-122.##Bayat, S. and Sepehri, A. 2014. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid and paclobutrazol on grain yield and dry matter remobilization of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress. Cereal Research 4 (2): 127-139.##Budakli, E., Celik, N., Turk, M., Bayram, G. and Tas, B. 2007. Effects of post anthessis drought stress on the stem- reserve mobilization supporting grain filling of tworowed barley cultivars at different levels of nitrogen. Journal of Biological Sciences 7 (6): 949-953.##Dianat Maharluei, Z., Maghsoudi, K., Dianat Maharlouei, Z. and Imam, Y. 2014. The effect of salinity and salicylic acid on morphological and physiological characteristics sorghum in early stages of growth. Journal of Plant Process and Function 3 (7): 58-65.##El-Tayeb, M. A. 2005. Response of barley gains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid, Plant Growth Regulation 45: 215-225.##Eraslan, F., Inal, A., Gunes, A. and Alpaslan, M. 2007. Impact of exogenous salicylic acid on the growth, antioxidant activity and physiology of carrot plants subjected to combined salinity and boron toxicity. Scientia Horticulturae 113 (2): 120-128.##Fouman, A. 2010. Agronomy and breeding of sorghum. Publication of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran. 129 p. (In Persian).##Fouman, A., Mokhtarzadeh, A. A., Beheshti, A. R., Shiri, M. R., Rahnema, A., Nadali, F., Nourmohammadi, S. and Hasanzadeh Moghaddam, H. 2008. Pegah: A new forage sorghum cultivar. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal 24 (2): 367-371. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Habibpour, S. S., Naderi, A., Lake, Sh., Faraji, H. and Mojaddam, M. 2016. The effect of salicylic acid on yield and some physiological characteristics of sweet corn hybrids under stress water shortage. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences 1 (2): 1-15.##Hamrouni, I., Salah, H. B. and Marzouk, B. 2001. Effects of water-deficit on oil of safflower aerialparts. Phytochemistry 58 (2): 277-280.##Hayat, Q., Hayat, S., Irfan, M. and Ahmad, A. 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid underchanging environment: A review. Environmental and experimental botany 68 (1): 14-25.##Hayat, S., Ali, B. and Ahmad, A. 2007. Salicylic acid: Biosynthesis, metabolism and physiologicalrole in plants. In: Hayat, S. and Ahmad, A. (Eds.). Salicylic acid: A plant hormone. Springer.pp: 1-14.##Hayat, S., Fariduddin, Q., Ali, B. and Ahmad, A. 2005. Effect of salicylic acid on growth andenzyme activities of wheat seedlings. Acta Agronomica Academica Scientiarum Hungaricae53: 433-437.##Kang, G. 2003. Salicylic acid changes activities of H2O2 metabolizing enzymes and increases thechilling tolerance of banana seedlings. Environmental and Experimental Botany 50: 9-15.##Khazaei, A. and Fouman, A. 2012. Evaluation of drought tolerance in cultivars and advanced grainsorghum lines under low irrigation stress conditions. Electronic Journal of Crop Production 5 (3):63-79. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Khodary, S. F. A. 2004. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth, photosynthesis and carbohydratemetabolism in salt stressed maize plants. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 6: 5-8.##Laribi, B., Bettaieb, I., Kouki, K., Sahli, A., Mougou, A. and Marzouk, B. 2009. Water deficit effects  on caraway (Carum carvi L.) growth, essential oils and fatty acids composition. Industrial Crops and Proudcts 30 (3): 372-379.##Mehrabian Moghadam, N., Arvin, M. J., Khajoeinejad, Gh. and Maghsoudi, K. 2011. Effect ofsalicylic acid on growth and forage and grain yield of maize under drought stress in field conditions. Seed and Plant Production 27 (2): 41-55. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Mohammadkhani, N. and Heidari, R. 2007. Effects of water stress on respiration, photosyntheticpigments and water content in tow Maize cultivar. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 10 (22): 4022-4028.##Moradi Marjane, E. and Goldani, M. 2011. Evaluation of different salicylic acid levels on somegrowth characteristics of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) under limited irrigation. Journal of Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences 4 (1): 33-45.##Mousavi, Gh., Mirhadi, M., Siadat, E., Noormohamami, Gh. and Darvish, F. 2009. The effect ofwater stress and nitrogen fertilization on yield and water use efficiency of forage millet. Modern Agriculture 15: 101-114.##Nadvar, A., Ardakani, M. R., Nourmohammadi, G. and Najafi, A. 2005. The effect of four levelsof tape and drip irrigation on water use efficiency and morphological traits of maize (cv. SC700). Iranian Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding 1 (1): 63-73. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Nasri, M. B., Aouani, M. E. and Mhamdi, R. 2007. Nodulation and growth of common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris) under water deficiency. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 30: 1744-1750.##Neslihan, S., Aykut, S. and Asim, K. 2011. Salicylic acid pretreatment induces drought tolerance anddelays leaf rolling by inducing antioxidant systems in maize genotypes. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 34: 97-106.##Omidi Ardali, Gh. and Behrani, M. 2011. Effects of drought stress, the amount and timing of nitrogenapplication on yield and yield components of sunflower growth stages. Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources: Water and Soil Sciences 55: 199-207.##Omidi, H., Movahadi, F. and Movahadi, Sh. 2012. The effect of salicylic acid and scarification ongermination characteistics and proline, protein and soluble carbohydrate content of Prosopis(Prosopis farcta L.) seedling under salt stress. Range and Desert Research 18 (4): 608-623.##Panda, R. K., Behera, S. K. and Kashypa, P. S. 2004. Effective management of irrigation water formaize under stressed conditions. Agricultural and Food Engineering 66: 181-203.##Pireivatlou, A. S., Dehdar Masjedlou, B. and Ramiz, T. A. 2010. Evaluation of yield potential andstress adaptive trait in wheat genotypes under post anthesis drought stress conditions. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5: 2829-2836.##Rigling, A., Briihlhart, H., Braker, O., Forster, T. and Schweingruber, F. H. 2003. Effect ofirrigation on diameter growth and vertical resin production in Pinus sylvestris L. on dry sites in thecentral Alps, Switzerland. Forest Ecology and Management 175: 285-296.##Sanchez-Blanco, J., Fernandez, T., Morales, A., Morte, A. and Alarcon J. J. 2006. Variation inwater stress, gas exchange, and growth in Rosmarinus officinalis plants infected with Glamusdeserticola under drought conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology 161: 675-682.##Setter, T. L., Flannigan, B. A. and Melkonian, J. 2001. Loss of kernel set due to water deficit andshade in maize: Carbohydrate supplies, abscissic acid and cytokinins. Crop Science 41 (5):1530-1540.##Shibli, R. A., Kushad, M., Yousef, G. G. and Lila, M. A. 2007. Physiological and biochemicalresponses of tomato micro shoots to induced salinity stress with associated ethylene accumulation. Plant Growth Regulation 51: 159-169.##Sinaki, J. M., Majidi Hervan, E., Shirani-Rad, A. H., Noormohammadi, G. and Zarei, G. 2007. The effects of water deficit during growth stages of canola (Brassica napus L.). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science 2 (4): 417-422.##Sreevalli, Y., Baskaran, K., Chandrashekara, R. and Kuikkarni, R. 2001. Preliminary observationson the effect of irrigation frequency and genotypes on yield and alkaloid concentration in petriwinkle. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences 22: 356-358.##Tarigh-Al Eslami, M., Kafi, M. and Zarghami, R. 2016. Effect of chilling and drought stress inresponse to salicylic acid on selection criteria and grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology 8 (31): 5-20. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Vahidi, H., Khajoeinejad, Gh. and Rezaei, A. 2015. Grain yield and water use efficiency of fivesorghum cultivars under different irrigation regimes in Kerman. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 13 (3): 461-470. (In Persian with English Abstract).##Yanping, T., Xin, S ., Tao, W., Mingjie, L., Mingyan, Y. and Xuefei, C. 2017. Implications ofterminal oxidase function in regulation of salicylic acid on soybean seedling photosyntheticperformance under water stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 112: 19-28.##Zamaninejad, M., Khavari Khorasani, S., Jami Moeini, M. and Heidarian, A. 2013. Effect ofsalicylic acid on morphological characteristics, yield and yield components of corn (Zea mays L.)under drought conditions. European Journal of Experimental Biology 3 (2): 153-161.##Zerbini, E. and Thomas, D. 2003. Opportunities for improvement of nutritive value in sorghum andpearl millet residues in south Asia through genetic enhancement. Field Crops Research 84: 3-15.