کنترل شیمیایی علف‌های هرز شالیزار در شرایط آبیاری تناوبی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

کمبود منابع آب، پایداری نظام­های کشت برنج غرقابی دائم را تهدید می­کند. به­منظور بررسی تأثیر طول دوره غرقاب بر کارایی علف‌کش­ها در کنترل علف‌های هرز شالیزار و خسارت علف‌های هرز بر عملکرد برنج، آزمایشی در سال 1394 به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور-رشت انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل ارقام برنج (هاشمی و گیلانه) و طول دوره غرقاب اولیه (غرقاب به ­مدت 2، 4، 6 ، 8 و 12 هفته اول پس از نشاکاری غرقاب و سپس آبیاری تناوبی) بود. بر اساس عرف منطقه، 12 هفته غرقاب، معادل غرقاب دائم در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که از لحاظ درصد کارایی علف‌کش­ها اختلاف معنی­داری در بین ارقام هاشمی (9/87 درصد) و گیلانه (6/85 درصد) وجود نداشت. با کاهش طول دوره غرقاب اولیه از 12 هفته به 6 هفته، کاهش معنی­داری در کارایی علف­کش مشاهده نشد، اما با کاهش بیش­تر مدت زمان غرقاب اولیه به چهار و دو هفته، کارایی علف­کش­ها به‌طور معنی­داری کاهش یافت. حداکثر عملکرد شلتوک (2/3989 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار غرقاب دائم+ مصرف علف­کش مشاهده شد و با کاهش طول مدت زمان غرقاب به شش هفته، عملکرد شلتوک برنج به­میزان 10 درصد کاهش یافت که البته از لحاظ آماری معنی­دار نبود. کاهش بیش­تر طول دوره غرقاب به چهار و دو هفته، منجر به کاهش معنی­دار عملکرد شلتوک به ­ترتیب به­ میزان 16 و 31 درصد شد. در مجموع، نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که تحت شرایط کم­آبی، اعمال حداقل شش هفته غرقاب اولیه جهت دستیابی به کارایی مطلوب علف­کش­ها   (بیش­تر از 90 درصد)، بدون کاهش معنی­دار در عملکرد شلتوک نسبت به تیمار غرقاب دائم ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Chemical weed control in paddy fields under intermittent irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farzaneh Asadollahi- Sharifi 1
  • Hashem Aminpanah 2
  • Bijan Yaghoubi 3
1 M. Sc. Student, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
2 Assoc.Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
3 Research Assist.Prof., Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Water resources shortage threatens the sustainability of continuous flooding rice culture. To investigate the effect of initial flooding duration on herbicide efficacy and rice yield loss,a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Institute of Iran, Rasht, Iran, in 2015. The experiment was arranged in a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications.The experimental factors were two rice cultivars (Hashemi and Gilaneh) and five initial flooding durations (flooding for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks after transplanting and then applying intermittent irrigation). Consistent with the paddy fields irrigation method in northern Iran, 12-week flooding duration was considered as continuous flooding irrigation. Results showed that there was no significant difference in herbicide efficacy between Hashemi (87.9%) and Gilaneh (85.6%) cultivars. No significant reduction in herbicide efficacy was observed when initial flooding duration reduced from 12 to 6 weeks, but with further reduction in initial flooding duration to four and two weeks, herbicide efficacy was significantly reduced. The highest paddy yield (3989.2 kg.ha-1) was observed in permanent flooding(flooding for 12 weeks) + herbicide application treatment and the paddy yield was decreasedabout 10% by reducing theinitial flooding duration to six weeks but it was not statistically significant. With further decrease in initial flooding duration to four and two weeks, rice paddy yield reduced significantly by 16% and 31%, respectively. In conclusion, results of this experiment revealed that under water shortage conditions, it is necessary to apply initial flooding duration at least for 6 weeks after transplanting for obtaining favorable herbicide efficacy (more than 90%) without paddy yieldloss compared to permanent flooding treatment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Herbicide efficacy
  • Irrigation method
  • paddy fields
  • Yield loss
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