بررسی کارایی صفات کمی مرفولوژیک و فنولوژیک ذرت (Zea mays L.) در تهیه دستورالعمل ملی آزمون‌های‌ تمایز، یکنواختی و پایداری (DUS)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 استاد، گروه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

انتخاب صفات کمی، دسته‌بندی دامنه تظاهر آن­ها و تعیین ارقام شاهد برای مقایسه، از اصلی‌ترین نکات تهیه دستورالعمل‌های تمایز، یکنواختی و پایداری(DUS) است، به­نحوی که بر اساس این صفات بتوان سه شرط تمایز، یکنواختی و پایداری یک رقم جدید را بررسی کرد. به­منظور تهیه دستورالعمل ملی آزمون‌های DUS ارقام ذرت، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و 28 رقم و لاین در موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال کرج طی دو سال زراعی 1393 و 1394 اجرا شد. 49 صفت کمی و کیفی مرفولوژیک و فنولوژیک پیشنهادی اتحادیه بین‌المللی حمایت از ارقام جدید گیاهی (UPOV)، دفتر ارقام گیاهی اتحادیه اروپا (CPVO)، کشورهای هند (PPV&FRA) و فیلیپین (PVPO) انتخاب و ارزیابی شد. سپس ده صفت کمی براساس محاسبه یکنواختی درون رقم با استفاده از مقادیر ضریب تغییرات، همبستگی بین صفات، وراثت­پذیری، پایداری صفات طی دو سال و تجزیه به مولفه‌های اصلی، به­عنوان صفات کمی دستورالعمل ملی انتخاب شدند. دامنه تظاهر ده صفت منتخب، بر اساس آمار توصیفی و توزیع فراوانی ارقام، به حالت­های مختلف تقسیمشد. صفت ارتفاع بوته با داشتن دو نقطه بیشینه در نمودار توزیع فراوانی ارقام، به­عنوان صفت گروه‌بندی­کننده دسته‌بندی شد، درحالی­که نه صفت کمی دیگر فقط یک نقطه بیشینه داشتند و به­عنوان صفات استاندارد انتخاب شدند. در نهایت با استفاده از نمودار جعبه‌ای، هیبرید سینگل­کراس 704 و دو لاین مادری فجر و مبین، به­عنوان ارقام شاهد برای صفت ارتفاع بوته تعیین شدند. استفاده از این روش به­عنوان یک روش مفید به­منظور تهیه دستورالعمل DUS برای جنس‌های گیاهی دیگر نیز پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Usefulness of quantitative morphological and phenological characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) in preparating national guidelines of tests for distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Jazayeri Noushabadi 1
  • Jafar Asghari 2
  • Habibolah Samizadeh Lahiji 3
  • Aidin Hamidi 1
1 Research Instructor, Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
2 Prof.,Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University ofGuilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Prof.,Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Selecting quantitative characteristics, division of their expression ranges and selecting the check varieties are key issues on preparation of DUS test guidelines,so that based on these characteristics can evaluate three conditionsof a new variety; distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS). To prepare national DUS test guidelines in maize (Zea mays L.), a randomized complete block design was conducted with three replications and 28 varieties and lines at Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute(SPCRI), Karaj, Iran,during 2014 and 2015. First, a total of 49 qualitative and quantitative morphological and phenological characteristics proposed by international union for the protection of new varieties of plants (UPOV), community plant variety office (CPVO), India (PPV&FRA) and Philippines (PVPO),were selected and evaluated.Then,ten quantitative characteristics based on within-variety uniformity by usingcoefficient of variation, correlation among characteristics, heritability,stability in two years and principal component analysis, were selected for the national DUS test guidelines. The expression ranges of these ten selected quantitative characteristics were divided into different situationsusing the descriptive statistics and frequency distribution of the varieties. The plant height with two peaks in the frequency distribution chart of the varieties was categorized as grouping characteristic, whileothernine selected quantitative characteristics had only one peak andwere selected as standard characteristics. Finally, KSC704 hybrid and two maternal lines Fajr and Mobin were determined as the check varieties for plant heightusing boxplot. It is also proposed to use this method as an efficient method for preparingDUS guidelines for other plant genera.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Coefficient of variation
  • Descriptor
  • Plant height
  • Principal component analysis
  • SC704
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