ارزیابی مقایسه ای تاثیر کودهای آلی و معدنی بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و شاخص های رشد برنج (Oryza sativa L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر فوق دکتری، گروه زیست شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زیست شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 دانشیار پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

4 استادیار پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

5 محقق، موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر کودهای شیمیایی و مرغی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد برنج رقم هاشمی، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه آزمایشی موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور در سال 1396 انجام شد. تیمارهای کودی مورد مطالعه، کود مرغی (33 تن در هکتار)، کود شیمیایی (توصیه شده توسط موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور) و شاهد بدون کود بودند. صفات اندازه­گیری شده شامل عملکرد دانه، وزن هزار دانه، درصد دانه پر، تعداد کل پنجه، تعداد پنجه بارور، میزان سبزینگی برگ، هدایت روزنه­ای و برخی شاخص­های رشدی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیش­ترین عملکرد دانه (3664 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، وزن هزار دانه (31/23 گرم)، درصد دانه پر (6/96 درصد) و ماده خشک کل (900 گرم بر متر مربع) متعلق به تیمار کود شیمیایی بود. در مقابل، استفاده از کود مرغی، بیش­ترین طول برگ پرچم (6/40 سانتی­متر) را تولید کرد و بیش­ترین سرعت جذب خالص (6/4 گرم بر متر مربع در روز) نیز از تیمار کود مرغی به­دست آمد. استفاده از کود مرغی سبب افت دیرتر شاخص سطح برگ نسبت به سایر تیمارها شد. بیش­ترین سطح ویژه برگ در تیمار کود شیمیایی مشاهده شد. سطح ویژه برگ در تیمار کود مرغی در ابتدای دوره رشد کم­تر بود، ولی با گذشت زمان به تیمار کود شیمیایی نزدیک شد. بیش­ترین شاخص سطح برگ و نیز بیش­ترین میزان سبزینگی برگ پرچم در تیمار کود مرغی و بیش­ترین هدایت روزنه­ای در تیمار کود شیمیایی مشاهده شد. بر اساس نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق، اگرچه تیمار کود شیمیایی سبب افزایش عملکرد و بهبود اجزای عملکرد گیاه برنج نسبت به کود مرغی شد، ولی کود مرغی نیز توانست سرعت جذب خالص، طول برگ پرچم، شاخص سطح برگ و سبزینگی برگ را نسبت به کود شیمیایی بهبود بخشد. احتمالاً به­دلیل فراهمی بیش­تر عناصر غذایی در کود شیمیایی، عملکرد تولید شده به­وسیله کود شیمیایی بیش­تر از کود مرغی بود. به­طور کلی، با توجه به آثار زیست­محیطی زیان­بار کودهای شیمیایی و عدم کاهش قابل توجه عملکرد برنج رقم هاشمی در تیمار کود مرغی، استفاده از کود مرغی به­جای کود شیمیایی توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative evaluation of the effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on yield, yield components and growth indices of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Salehifar 1
  • Mansour Afshar Mohammadian 2
  • Masoud Kavoosi 3
  • Kobra Tajadodi Talab 4
  • Hassan Shokri vahed 5
1 Post-Doctoral Researcher, Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Research Assoc. Prof., Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
4 Research Assist. Prof., Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
5 Researcher, Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of chemical fertilizer and chicken manure on yield and yield components of rice cv. Hashemi, a field experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications at Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII), Rasht, Iran, in 2017. The studied fertilizer treatments were chicken manure (33 t.ha-1), chemical fertilizer (recommended by RRII) and control (no-fertilizer). The studied traits included grain yield, 1000-grain weight, filled grain percentage, number of total tiller per plant, number of fertile tiller, SPAD value, stomatal conductivity and some growth indices. The results indicated that the highest grain yield (3664 kg.ha-1), 1000-grain weight (23.31g), filled grain (96.6 %) and total dry matter (900 g.m-2) were obtained from chemical fertilizer. In contrast, the use of chicken manure produced the highest flag leaf length (40.6 cm) and the highest net assimilation rate (4.6 g.m-2.day-1). Application of chicken manure caused the leaf area index (LAI) to decrease than other treatments. The highest specific leaf area (SLA) was observed in chemical fertilizer. SLA was less in chicken manure at the beginning of the growth period, but over time and reaching next growth stages, it approached to chemical fertilizer. The highest LAI and leaf greenness (SPAD value) obtained from chicken manure application, but the highest stomatal conductivity was observed in chemical fertilizers. According to results of this research, although the application of chemical fertilizers more increased the yield and improved the yield components than chicken manure, but application of chicken manure could be improved the net assimilation rate (NAR), flag leaf length, LAI and SPAD than chemical fertilizer. Probably due to the more greater value of nutrients in chemical fertilizer than chicken manure, the yield produced by chemical fertilizer was higher than chicken manure. In total, according to the harmful environmental effects of chemical fertilizer and the not-significant reduction of grain yield of rice cv. Hashemi in chicken manure treatment, chicken manure instead of chemical fertilizer is recommended.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chicken manure
  • LAI
  • NAR
  • SPAD
  • Stomatal conductance
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