بررسی مدیریت گیاهان پوششی زمستانه در کنترل زیست توده علف های هرز ذرت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 عضو هیات علمی بخش تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل

3 محقق علف هرز، بخش تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل

4 2- دانشجوی دکتری علوم علف‌های هرز دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی مدیریت گیاهان پوششی زمستانه بر کنترل زیست­توده علف­های هرز در ذرت، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1394-1395 در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مغان به­صورت کرت­های خردشده با طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. گیاهان پوششی به­عنوان فاکتور اصلی (مخلوط گندم + شبدر کریمسون، تک­کشتی گندم و مخلوط چاودار + گندم( و نحوه مدیریت آن­ها به­عنوان فاکتور فرعی (کف­بر و برداشت بقایا و کف­بر و ایجاد مالچ) همراه با تیمار شاهد (بدون گیاه پوششی) در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که کم­ترین وزن خشک کل علف­های هرز در تیمار چاودار+ گندم با مدیریت ایجاد مالچ مشاهده شد. به­طور کلی وزن خشک کل علف­های هرز تحت شرایط ایجاد مالچ، 65 درصد و تحت شرایط برداشت بقایا، 35 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد بدون گیاه پوششی کاهش یافت. بیش­ترین مقدار عملکرد دانه (4 تن در هکتار)، عملکرد زیستی (1/15 تن در هکتار)، تعداد ردیف بلال (14 ردیف) و تعداد دانه در ردیف (26 دانه در ردیف) از تیمار کشت مخلوط شبدر + گندم در مدیریت برداشت بقایا به­دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که علوفه خشک تولید شده توسط تیمارهای تک­کشتی گندم، مخلوط چاودار و گندم و مخلوط گندم و شبدر کریمسون به­ترتیب 1960، 1933 و 1800کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. به­طور کلی، نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که مدیریت صحیح گیاهان پوششی، ضمن استفاده کارآمدتر از منابع و تغذیه مطلوب دام، می­تواند به­عنوان یک جزء مهم از استراتژی مدیریت پایدار علف­های هرز به­شمار رود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the management of winter cover crops in weeds control of corn

نویسندگان [English]

  • parviz sharifiziveh 2
  • Ghorban didehbaz moghanlo 3
  • behrouz khalil tahmasbi 4
2 Scientific member of Plant Protection Research Department, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (Moghan), Iran.
3 Weed Researcher of Plant Protection Research Department, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (Moghan), Iran.
4 2Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigation the management of winter cover crops on weed control in corn, an experiment was carried out as split-plot in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Moghan, Iran, during 2016-2017. Cover plants (wheat + crimson clover mixed culture, wheat single culture and rye + wheat mixed culture) were considered as the main factor and their management methods (removing residues from the soil surface and remaining residues on the soil surface as mulch) as the sub-factor together with a control treatment (without cover plants). The results showed that the lowest total dry weight of weeds was obtained from rye + wheat treatment with mulch management. In general, total dry weight of weeds was reduced by 65% under mulch conditions and 35% under removing residues conditions compared to control treatment. The highest grain yield (4 t.ha-1), biological yield (15.1 t.ha-1), number of rows per ear (14 rows) and number of grains per row (26 grains) was obtained from clover + wheat mixed culture in the management of removing residues. The results showed that dry fodder produced by wheat single culture, rye + wheat mixture and wheat + crimson clover mixture was 1960 kg.ha-1, 1933 kg.ha-1 and 1800 kg.ha-1, respectively. In total, the results of this research indicated that the accurate management of cover plants, in addition to more efficient use of resources and livestock nutrition, can be considered as an important component of the sustainable weed management strategy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crimson clover
  • Grain yield
  • Mulch
  • Rye
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