کاربرد نیتروژن و کودهای زیستی بر عملکرد، کارایی مصرف نیتروژن و برخی صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیک برنج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد،گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 دانش آموخته دکتری،گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

به­ منظور مطالعه عملکرد دانه، کاراییمصرفنیتروژن، انتقال مجدد و مولفه‌های پرشدن دانه برنج در واکنش به کاربرد نیتروژن و کودهای زیستی، آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1393 در مزرعه­ای در شهرستان سیاهکل استان گیلان انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل مقادیر کود نیتروژن در چهار سطح (صفر، 60، 90 و 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن خالص) از منبع اوره و کودهای زیستی در چهار سطح (عدم کاربرد کود زیستی، کاربرد میکوریز، کاربرد ازتوباکتر و آزوسپریلیوم، کاربرد توأم میکوریز با ازتوباکتر و آزوسپریلیوم) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیش‌ترین عملکرد دانه و مولفه‌هایپرشدندانه (سرعت، طول دوره و دوره موثر پر شدن دانه) در بالاترین سطح نیتروژن و کاربرد توأممیکوریز با ازتوباکتر و آزوسپریلیومبه‌دست آمد. با افزایش سطوح نیتروژن، میزان انتقال مجدد ماده خشک از کل بوته و ساقه کاهش یافت. کاربرد میکوریز، ازتوباکتر و آزوسپریلیوم با 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن، سهم فرآیند انتقال مجدد در عملکرد دانه و میزان مشارکت ذخایر ساقه را کاهش داد. بیش‌ترین کارایی مصرف نیتروژن به سطح کودی 60 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن و کم‌ترین آن به سطح کودی 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن تعلق داشت. به­ طور کلی، نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که120 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن خالص و کاربرد توأم میکوریز با ازتوباکتر و آزوسپریلیوم می‌تواند به­عنوان ابزار مناسب برای افزایش عملکرد دانه برنج مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of nitrogen and biofertilizers on yield, nitrogen use efficiency and some morpho physiological traits of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahshid zad Behtouei 1
  • raouf seyed sharifi 2
  • razieh khalilzadeh 3
1 Graduated M.Sc., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
3 Graduated Ph.D.,Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency, remobilization and grain filling components of grain rice (Oryza sativa L.) in response to application of nitrogen and biofertilizers, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted under field conditionin Siahkal, Guilan province, Iran, in 2014. The experimental factors were nitrogen rates in four levels (0, 60, 90 and 120 kg.ha-1N) from urea fertilizer and biofertilizers in four levels (without biofertilizer, application of Mycorrhiza, application of Azotobacter + Azospirillum andapplication ofMycorrhiza +Azotobacter + Azospirillum). The highest grain yield and grain filling components (rate, grain filling period and effective grain filling period) were obtained from the highest level of nitrogen and application of Mycorrhiza + Azotobacter+Azospirillum. Dry matter remobilization from whole plant and stem decreased with increasing nitrogenlevels.Application of Mycorrhiza+ Azotobacter+ Azospirillum together with 120 kg.ha-1 nitrogen reduced the contribution of dry mater remobilization for grain yield and stem reserves. The highest nitrogen use efficiency was obtained from the 60 and 120 kg.ha-1nitrogen, respevtively. The results of this research showed that the application of 120 kg.ha-1net N and the application of Mycorrhiza with Azotobacter+ Azospirillum can be used as a suitable tool to increase rice grain yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain filling rate
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
  • Remobilization
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