برآورد هتروزیس تحمل به سرما در مرحله گیاهچه ای ذرت با استفاده از برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری،گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

4 استاد، عضو گروه ژنتیکشورای تحقیقات بین‌المللی اسپانیا (CSIC)، مادرید، اسپانیا

چکیده

حساسیت ذرت به تنش سرما طی مراحل اولیه رشد اتوتروفیک، محدودیت مهمی جهت کاشت آن در مناطق سرد به شمار می­رود. به­منظور شناسایی اساس فیزیولوژیک هتروزیس تحمل به سرما در گیاهچه ذرت، تغییرات برخی از صفات فیزیولوژیک در لاین‌ها و هیبریدهای متحمل و حساس به سرما در مرحله گیاهچه‌ای در دانشگاه زنجان در سال 1396  مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که تأثیر تیمار سرما بر صفات فلورسانس کلروفیل، محتوای رطوبت نسبی، نشت الکترولیت، محتوای کلروفیل a، محتوای کلروفیل b، کاروتنوئیدها، حجم ریشه، سطح ریشه و وزن خشک ریشه معنی‌دار بود. هتروزیس نسبت به والد برتر در محتوای کلروفیل b، سطح ریشه، حجم ریشه و نشت الکترولیت در بیش­تر هیبریدها مشاهده شد. کارایی هیبرید MO17×EP80 از نظر صفات فیزیولوژیک تحت شرایط تنش نسبت به بقیه هیبریدها بهتر بود. هیبریدهای EP42×MO17 و A661×MO17 نیز رشد و گستردگی ریشه بهتری تحت شرایط تنش سرما داشتند. همبستگی معنی‌دار بین مقادیر هتروزیس فقط در برخی صفات که دارای اساس ژنتیکی، فیزیولوژیک و یا نموی مشترک بودند، مانند وزن خشک ریشه و محتوی آب نسبی و یا محتوای کلروفیل b و نشت الکترولیت مشاهده شد، اما همبستگی بین مقادیر هتروزیس در سایر صفات به­طور کلی ضعیف بود که نشان می‌دهد اساس ژنتیکی هتروزیس وابسته به صفت است و احتمالاً توسط یک مکانیسم واحد کنترل نمی‌شود. وجود اختلافات معنی‌دار بین ژنوتیپ‌ها در همه صفات، امکان جدیدی برای بهبود تحمل به تنش سرما در یک گیاه گرمسیری با استفاده از اصلاح نباتات فراهم می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing cold tolerance heterosis at corn seedling stage using some physiological traits

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Erfanimoghadam 1
  • Reza Fotovat 2
  • Ehsan Mohsenifard 3
  • Victor Rodriguez 4
1 Ph.D.Student, Dept. ofPlant Production and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2 Assoc.Prof.,Dept. of Plant Production and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 Assist. Prof.,Dept. of Plant Production and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
4 Prof., Misión Biológica de Galicia, Member of the Genetics Department of the International Research Council of Spain (CSIC), Calle Serrano 117, 28006 Madrid, Spain
چکیده [English]

Corn susceptibility to cold stress during early autotrophic growth is an important limitation for its cultivation in the cold areas. To identify the physiological basis of cold tolerance heterosis in maize seedlings, the changes of some physiological traits were studied in maize cold tolerant and susceptible inbred lines and hybrids at seedling stage in University of Zanjan, Iran, in 2017. The results showed that the effect of cold treatment onchlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content, electrolyte leakage,chlorophyll acontent, chlorophyll bcontent, carotenoids, root volume, root area androot dry weight were significant. The better-parent heterosis was detected in chlorophyll b content, root area, root volume and electrolyte leakage in most hybrids. Performance of MO17×EP80 hybrid was better than other hybrids for all physiological traits under stress conditions. EP42×MO17 and A661×MO17 hybrids also had better root growth and extension under cold stress conditions.The significant correlation was only observed between heterosis values of some traits that had a common genetic, physiological and developmental basis, such as root dry weight and relative water content or chlorophyll b content and electrolyte leakage. However, the correlation between heterosis values of the other traits was generally poor, indicatingthat the genetic basis of heterosis is trait dependent and probably not controlled by a single mechanism. The significant differences among genotypes in all traits, provide a new opportunitto improve cold stress tolerance in a tropical plant using plant breeding.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll content
  • Electrolyte leakage
  • Quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm)
  • Root
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