آشنایی با ناقل های سیس‌ژنیک و اینتراژنیک و کاربرد آن ها در به‌نژادی غلات (مقاله مروری)

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسنده

دانشیار،گروه بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

امروزه پیشرفت‌های زیادی در به­ نژادی گیاهان زراعی با استفاده از ابزار مهندسی ژنتیک به دست آمده به­طوری­که سطح زیرکشت گیاهان تغییریافته ژنتیکی (Genetically modified=GM) در 20 سال گذشته در نقاط مختلف دنیا افزایش قابل توجه­ای یافته است.با وجود مزایای زراعی و اقتصادی و تاثیرات مفید غیرقابل انکار آنها بر محیط و سلامتی انسان، شک و تردید جامعه و مصرف کنندگان نسبت به گیاهان GMسبب شده است تا اجرا، بهره‌برداری و تجاری ‌سازی آن­ها و به عبارتی کاربرد تکنیک‌هایمولکولی در بسیاری از گیاهان زراعی متوقف شود.این امر عمدتاً به­سبب ورود ژن­های نشانگر انتخابی با منشا باکتریایی به ژنوم گیاه میزبان و نیز مرتبط با آثار سوء احتمالی انتقال عناصر ژنتیکی بین گیاهانی است که در طبیعت معمولاً غیرقابل تلاقی هستند. اولین مرحله در اجرای این هدف، طراحی یک ناقلDNA  ویژه برای هر گیاه زراعی است به گونه­ای که منطقه T-DNA آن فقط از عناصر ژنتیکی همان گیاه و یا خویشاوندان نزدیک ژنتیکی آن به­دست آمده باشد که در این صورت می­تواند پذیرش مصرف­کنندگان را به­همراه داشته باشد. از مهم‌ترین عناصر، پروموتر، ترمیناتور، مرزهای تکراری چپ و راست T-DNA و غیره است که باید با انواع گیاهی جایگزین شود. در اغلب موارد استفاده از ژن­هاینشانگر که منشا باکتریایی دارند باید اجتناب شود یاپس از تولید و ایزوله کردن گیاه تراریخت، از گیاه هدف به روش‌های مختلف حذف ‌شوند. در این مقاله،مفهوم رهیافت­های سیس‌ژنیک یا اینتراژنیکبرای به­نژادی گیاهان و نکات علمی و فنی برای طراحی وکتورهای گیاهی به طور خلاصه بررسی و ارایه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Introduction to cisgenic and intragenic vectors and their application in cereal breeding (Review Article)

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohammad Mehdi Sohani
Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

The area under cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops hasincreased dramatically within the last 20 years. In spite of the economic/agronomic benefits, and their undeniable effects on the environment and human health, social rejection towards GM food, has hindered implementation, exploitation, and commercialization of the molecular techniques. It is chiefly due to the introduction of prokaryotic genes as a selectable marker and transgene from sources that are not naturally crossable with target crop. Using a plant-derived DNA transformation vectors specially designed for each crop with genetic elements from its own genome should rise less environmental concern and may increase consumer’s acceptance. The promoter, terminator, T-DNA borders, etc. remain the prime genetic elements within T-DNA region that need to be replaced with plant-derived types. In addition, putative right border should be designed and selectable marker gene need to be avoided or removed following production of a transgenic plant.In the current paper, the concept of cisgenic and intragenic approaches for plant improvement and the essential technical points need to be considered when designing a plant-derived vector are briefly reviewed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gene transfer
  • Selectable marker removal
  • Transgenic plants
  • Vector backbone
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