ارزیابی انرژی مصرفی و تحلیل اقتصادی تولید گندم آبی در کشور

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات ماشین‌های کشاورزی و مکانیزاسیون، موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

10.22124/c.2019.13193.1489

چکیده

با افزایش روزافزون جمعیت و محدودیت‌های انرژی، دسترسی به انرژی کافی در آینده مشکل خواهد بود. ارزیابی بیلان انرژی می‌تواند یک روش علمی برای اندازه‌گیری میزان ثبات و پایداری یک اکوسیستم زراعی باشد. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، ارزیابی روند انرژی مصرفی و تحلیل اقتصادی تولید گندم آبی در هفت استان کشور شامل البرز، اصفهان، اردبیل، خراسان‌رضوی، خوزستان، گلستان و همدان بود. اطلاعات مورد نیاز این تحقیق از طریق تکمیل پرسشنامه و مصاحبه حضوری با کشاورزان تولیدکننده گندم آبی در استان‌های مورد مطالعه‌ جمع‌آوری شد. سپس با استفاده از معادلات هم‌ارز انرژی، مقدار نهاده‌های مصرفی و ستانده‌های تولید، انرژی ورودی و خروجی و شاخص‌های انرژی ارزیابی شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیش­ترین و کم­ترین انرژی ورودی با مقادیر 104701 و 07/26198 مگاژول بر هکتار به‌ترتیب از استان‌های خراسان‌رضوی و گلستان به‌دست آمد. استان‌های البرز و خراسان‌رضوی با مقادیر 28/162169 و 53/122297 مگاژول بر هکتار به‌ترتیب بیش­ترین و کم­ترین انرژی ستانده را در تولید گندم آبی داشتند. بیش­ترین سهم انرژی نهاده‌های مصرفی برای استان‌های البرز، اردبیل، خوزستان، گلستان و همدان مربوط به انرژی کودهای شیمیایی و برای استان‌های اصفهان و خراسان رضوی انرژی آبیاری بود. میانگین انرژی ورودی، انرژی ستانده، کارایی انرژی، بهره‌وری انرژی و افزوده خالص انرژی در استان‌های مورد مطالعه به‌ترتیب 83/58308 مگاژول بر هکتار، 15/136092 مگاژول بر هکتار، 87/2، 212/0 کیلوگرم بر مگاژول و 31/77783 مگاژول بر هکتار به­دست آمد. ماشین‌های کشاورزی با 87/34 درصد بیش­ترین سهم هزینه تولید را داشتند. بیش­ترین و کم­ترین بهره‌وری انرژی ورودی برای استان‌های گلستان و خراسان‌رضوی به‌ترتیب با مقادیر 38/0 و 08/0 کیلوگرم بر مگاژول تعیین شد. میانگین نسبت فایده به هزینه 16/2 و شاخص بهره‌وری اقتصادی 154/0 کیلوگرم در هزار ریال به‌دست آمد. به­طور کلی، نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تولید گندم آبی در مناطق مورد مطالعه از نظر بیلان انرژی، توجیه‌پذیر و از نظر اقتصادی، مقرون به‌صرفه است. بنابراین، ضمن حفظ پایداری انرژی در تولید و اصول کشاورزی حفاظتی، می­توان اقدام به افزایش سطح زیر کشت تولید گندم آبی در مناطق مورد مطالعه کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Energy consumption assessment and economic analysis of irrigated wheat production in Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Adel Vahedi
Research Assist. Prof., Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

With increasing world population and energy limitations, access to sufficient energy in the future will be difficult. Assessing the energy balance can be a scientific method to measure the stability and sustainability of an agroecosystem are considered. The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy consumption and economic analysis of irrigated wheat production in seven provinces of Iran including Alborz, Isfahan, Ardebil, Khorasan-e-Razavi, Khuzestan, Golestan, and Hamadan. Required information of this study was collected via questionnaires and face to face interviews with irrigated wheat farmers in the studied provinces. Then, using energy equivalence equations, input and output energies and energy indices were calculated. The results showed that the highest and lowest input energy were obtained from Khorasan-e-Razavi and Golestan provinces with 104701 and 26198.07 MJ.ha-1, respectively. Alborz and Khorasan-e-Razavi provinces had the highest and lowest output energy in irrigated wheat production with 162169.28 and 122297.53 MJ.ha-1, respectively. The maximum contribution of input energy for Alborz, Ardebil, Khuzestan, Golestan and Hamadan provinces was regarding to chemical fertilizers, while for Isfahan and Khorasan-e-Razavi was irrigation energy. Average input energy, output energy, energy ratio, energy productivity and net energy gain for all the studied provinces were 58308.83 MJ.ha-1, 136092.15 MJ.ha-1, 2.87, 0.212 kg.MJ-1 and 77783.31 MJ.ha-1, respectively. Agricultural machinery with 34.87% had the largest contribution of production cost. The highest and lowest energy productivity values were obtained from Golestan and Khorasan-e-Razavi provinces with 0.38 and 0.08 kg.MJ-1, respectively. The average benefit to cost ratio was 2.16 and the economic productivity index was 0.154 kg per 103 Rials. The results of current study showed that the production of irrigated wheat in the studied areas of Iran is justifiable in terms of economic and energy balance. Therefore, with respect to energy sustainability in production and conservation agriculture principles, it is possible to increase the cultivation area of irrigated wheat production.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Benefit to cost ratio
  • Economic productivity
  • Energy index
  • Net energy gain
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