اثر مصرف کود کند رها غنی‌شده با آهن بر ویژگی‌های کیفیت دانه گندم نان (Triticum aestivum) تحت شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، تهران، ایران

3 استاد، گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، پاکدشت، تهران، ایران

10.22124/c.2019.13715.1503

چکیده

به­‌منظور بررسی اثر کاربرد کود کند رهای غنی‌شده با آهن بر کیفیت دانه گندم نان رقم جدید نارین تحت شرایط تنش شوری و نیز ارزیابی تنوع آللی ژن‌های رمز‌کننده گلوتنین با وزن مولکولی بالا، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران در سال 1397-1396 اجرا شد. عامل­های مورد مطالعه، دو عامل تنش شوری (در سه سطح شامل صفر، 8 و 12 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) و کود (در پنج سطح شامل عدم مصرف کود، مصرف کود سولفات آهن معادل 10  و 20 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم خاک و سامانه کودی کندرهای غنی‌شده با سولفات آهن به مقدار 5/52 و 105 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم خاک) بودند. صفات مطالعه شده نیز شامل وزن صد دانه، عملکرد دانه در بوته، درصد پروتئین دانه، محتوای آهن دانه، کربوهیدرات‌های محلول کل دانه، شاخص سختی دانه، جذب آب آرد، محتوای رطوبت دانه، حجم نان و حجم رسوب زلنی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که صفات وزن صد دانه، عملکرد دانه در بوته، محتوای آهن دانه، محتوای کربوهیدرات‌های محلول کل دانه و شاخص زلنی با مصرف کود افزایش یافتند و در بیش­تر صفات مورد مطالعه، سامانه کودی کند رها غنی‌شده با آهن، آثار مثبت بیش­تری در مقایسه با کود سولفات آهن داشت. اعمال تنش شوری نیز سبب کاهش معنی‌دار صفات وزن صد دانه، عملکرد دانه و محتوای کربوهیدرات‌های محلول کل دانه شد، اما صفات محتوای آهن دانه، درصد پروتئین دانه و درصد جذب آب آرد با افزایش شدت تنش شوری، افزایش معنی‌داری نشان دادند. با بررسی الگوی الکتروفورزی زیرواحدهای گلوتنین با وزن مولکولی بالا در رقم نارین، آلل‌های  *2، 8+7 و 12+2 به­ترتیب در جایگاه­های ژنی Glu-A1، Glu-B1 و Glu-D1 شناسایی شدند. بر اساس نتایج آزمایش حاضر، به­نظر می‌رسد که سامانه کودی کند رها نسبت به کود سولفات آهن، کارایی بیش­تری بر ویژگی­های کیفی دانه و آرد گندم، به‌ویژه تحت شرایط تنش شوری، داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of application of slow-release fertilizer enriched with Fe on qualitative characteristics of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) under salinity stress conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Laleh Rahimi Milashi 1
  • Majid Ghorbani Javid 2
  • Iraj Alahdadi 3
  • Ali Izadi Darbandi 4
1 Ph. D. Candidate, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran
3 Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran
4 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of slow-release fertilizer enriched with Fe on grain quality of Narin, a new wheat cultivar, under salinity conditions and assessing the allelic diversity of high molecular weight glutenin encoding genes, a factorial experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications in research greenhouse of Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran, in 2017- 2018. The studied factors were two factors, salinity stress (at three levels including 0, 8 and 12 dS.m-1) and fertilizer (at five levels including no-fertilizer application, ferrous sulfate at 10 and 20 mg.kg-1 soil, super-absorbent fertilizer enriched with ferrous sulfate at 52.5 and 105 mg.kg-1 soil). The studied traits included 100 grain weight, grain yield per plant, grain protein percentage, grain Fe content, grain total soluble carbohydrates, grain hardness index, flour water absorption, moisture content, bread volume and zeleny sedimentation volume. The results showed that 100 grains weight, grain yield per plant, grain Fe content, grain total soluble carbohydrates content and zeleny sedimentation volume increased with application of fertilizer and superabsorbent fertilizer enriched with Fe had more positive effects than ferrous sulfate in many of the studied traits. Salinity stress significantly decreased 100 grains weight, grain yield and total soluble carbohydrates content, but grain Fe content, grain protein percentage and flour water absorption significantly increased with increasing salinity stress. By studying the electrophoretic pattern of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in Narin variety, 2*, 7+8 and 2+12 alleles were identified at Glu-A1, Glu- B1 and Glu-D1 loci, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, it seems that superabsorbent fertilizer enriched with Fe has higher efficiency than ferrous sulfate fertilizer on the qualitative characteristics of wheat grain and flour, especially under salinity stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Glutenin
  • Grain hardness index
  • Narin
  • Protein percentage
  • Zeleny sedimentation volume
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