بررسی مراحل رشد و نمو گندم نان (Triticum aestivum L.) در کرمانشاه با استفاده از شاخص درجه روز رشد تحت شرایط تعجیل و تأخیر در موعد کاشت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان لرستان، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، خرم‌آباد، ایران

3 دانشیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، مشهد، ایران

4 محقق، ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی اسلام‎آباد غرب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

10.22124/c.2019.13938.1510

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت بر عملکرد دانه و فنولوژی چند رقم جدید گندم نان، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت‎های خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی اسلام‌آباد غرب طی دو سال زراعی 94-1392 اجرا شد. عامل­های مطالعه شده شامل تاریخ کاشت در چهار سطح (هراکش، ورکشت، کرپه و خیلی­کرپه) و ارقام گندم در شش سطح (چمران-2، پارسی، پیشتاز، بهار، سیروان و سیوند) بودند که به­ترتیب در کرت‎های اصلی و فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که کاشت هراکش، کرپه و خیلی­کرپه سبب کاهش عملکرد دانه به‎ترتیب به­میزان 34/19، 34/30 و 40/44 درصد نسبت به کاشت ورکشت شد. کل دوره رشد گندم در کاشت هراکش، ورکشت، کرپه و خیلی­کرپه به‎ترتیب برابر با 244، 222، 204 و 181 روز بود. در کاشت هراکش، تعداد روز تا رسیدن به مراحل ظهور اولین برگ، آغاز پنجه‎زنی، برجستگی ساده، برجستگی دوگانه، سنبلچه انتهایی و ساقه‎دهی کاهش یافت، اما از مرحله ساقه‎دهی به بعد، ارقام دارای بیش­ترین تعداد روز تا ظهور برگ پرچم، آبستنی، سنبله‎دهی، گرده‎افشانی و رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک بودند. در هر چهار تاریخ کاشت، ارقام بهار و سیروان به­ترتیب با میانگین 2317 و 2155 درجه روز رشد، بیش­ترین و کم­ترین مقدار را در طول دوره رشد داشتند. رقم پارسی نیز با 934 واحد در دوره طویل شدن ساقه و با 807 واحد در دوره پرشدن دانه، به­ترتیب دارای بیش­ترین و کم­ترین درجه روز رشد بود و از این­رو به­علت زودرسی (سنبله‎دهی) و پرکردن مناسب دانه‎ها، بیش­ترین عملکرد دانه را در مجموع چهار تاریخ کاشت (8097 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به­خود اختصاص داد. به­طور کلی، نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تعجیل یا تأخیر در کاشت، سبب کاهش قابل­ملاحظه عملکرد دانه نسبت به کاشت ورکشت در همه ارقام مورد بررسی شد. بنابراین، کاشت در نیمه آبان و استفاده از رقم­هایی مانند پارسی و سیروان را می‎توان برای اقلیم‎های مشابه منطقه بررسی­شده در این تحقیق پیشنهاد داد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth stages using growing degree day index under early and late planting date in Kermanshah

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahryar Sasani 1
  • Reza Amiri 2
  • Hamid Reza Sharifi 3
  • Ali Lotfi 4
1 Research Assist. Prof., Dept. of Crop and Horticultural Science Research, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Kermanshah, Iran
2 Research Assist. Prof., Dept. of Crop and Horticultural Science Research, Lorestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Korramabad, Iran
3 Research Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Crop and Horticultural Science Research, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Kermanshah, Iran
4 Researcher, Eslamabad-e-Gharb Agricultural Research Station, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of planting date on grain yield and phenological stages of some new bread wheat cultivars, a split plot experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications in Eslamabad-e-Gharb Agricultural Research Station, Kermanshah, Iran, during 2013-2015 cropping years. The studied factors included planting date at four levels (early, timely, late and very late) and wheat cultivar at six levels (Chamran-2, Parsi, Pishtaz, Bahar, Sirwan and Sivand) which were considered as main- and sub-plots, respectively. Based on the results, early, late and very late planting dates caused a decrease in grain yield by 19.34, 30.34 and 44.40 percent, respectively. The total growth period of wheat cultivation in early, timely, late and very late planting dates were 244, 222, 204 and 181 days, respectively. In early planting date, the traits of number of days to first leaf appearance, tillering, single ridge, double ridge, terminal spikelet and stem elongation was decreased, but after stem elongation stage, the studied cultivars had the highest number of days to flag leaf appearance, booting, heading, anthesis and physiological maturity. The cultivars "Bahar" and "Sirwan" had the highest and lowest values (2317 and 2155 growing degree days, respectively) during the growth period at all planting dates. Cultivar “Parsi” with 934 units in stem elongation and 807 units in grain filling period, had the highest and lowest growing degree days, respectively, and therefore due to early maturity (heading) and fine grain filling capability, had the highest grain yield (8097 kg.ha-1) in a total of four planting dates. Overall, the results of this study showed that early and late planting dates significantly reduced grain yield compared to timely planting in all studied cultivars. Therefore, planting in mid-November and using wheat cultivars such as "Parsi" and "Sirwan" can be recommended for similar climates of the studied region in this research.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Delay planting
  • Double ridge
  • Grain Filling Period
  • Grain yield
  • Phenology
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