غربال ژنوتیپ‌های برنج (Oryza sativa L.) برای تحمل و حساسیت به بلاست برگ تحت شرایط آلودگی مصنوعی در مزرعه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استاد، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

10.22124/c.2019.13802.1506

چکیده

بیماری بلاست که توسط قارچ Pyricularia oryzae ایجاد می‌شود، یکی از بیماری‌های مهم برنج است که عملکرد برنج را در بعضی از سال‌ها تا 80-70 درصد کاهش می‌دهد. شیوه‌های مناسب کنترل این بیماری همیشه مورد توجه محققین بوده و به­ویژه معرفی ارقام متحمل همیشه به­عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین اهداف اصلاحی مدنظر به­نژادگران برنج بوده است. هدف از اجرای تحقیق حاضر، غربال ژنوتیپ­های برنج برای تحمل به بیماری بلاست برگ تحت شرایط آلودگی مصنوعی در مزرعه بود. در این تحقیق، تعداد 121 ژنوتیپ برنج از مجموعه ژرم‌پلاسم­های مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور (RRII) و موسسه تحقیقات بین‌المللی برنج (IRRI) انتخاب و در قالب یک طرح لاتیس 11×11 با دو تکرار تحت شرایط آلودگی مصنوعی با قارچ عامل بیماری بلاست در مزارع تحقیقاتی موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور (رشت) در سال 1394 کشت شدند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل تعداد لکه‌ها، تعداد لکه‌های اسپورزا، سطح آلودگی، درصد آلودگی، تیپ آلودگی و سطح زیر منحنی پیشرفت بیماری بودند که در خزانه بلاست در گیاهان تلقیح‌یافته با قارچ عامل بیماری اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تفاوت بسیار معنی‌داری (P<0.01) بین ژنوتیپ‌ها برای همه صفات مورد بررسی وجود داشت و بیش­تر صفات دارای وراثت‌پذیری عمومی و ضرایب تغییرات فنوتیپی و ژنوتیپی بالایی بودند. نتایج تجزیه خوشه‌ای جهت طبقه‌بندی ژنوتیپ‌ها بر اساس صفات مرتبط با بلاست برگ نشان داد که می‌توان ژنوتیپ‌های مورد مطالعه را به سه گروه متفاوت بر مبنای میزان حساسیت و تحمل به بلاست برگ تفکیک کرد. به­طور کلی، نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که از بین ژنوتیپ‌های مورد مطالعه، تعداد هشت ژنوتیپ متحمل به بلاست برگ بودند و ژنوتیپ‌های مهم و شاخص در بین آن‌ها ندا و خزر بودند. از ژنوتیپ­های متحمل می­توان جهت دستیابی به ارقام متحمل به بلاست برگ در برنامه­های به­نژادی آینده استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Screening rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes for susceptibility and tolerance to leaf blast under artificial inoculation in field conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Soheila Zarbafi 1
  • Babak Rabiei 2
  • Ali Akbar Ebadi 3
1 Ph. D. Student, Dept. of Plant Production and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Plant Production and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Research Assist. Prof., Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Blast disease caused by the Pyricularia oryzae is one of the major diseases of rice, which reduces the rice yield to 70-80% in some years. Appropriate methods of controlling this disease have always been of interest to the researchers, especially the introduction of tolerant cultivars has always been one of the most important breeding objectives of rice breeders. The objective of the present study was to screen rice genotypes for tolerance to leaf blast disease under field conditions. In this research, 121 rice genotypes from the germplasm collection of the Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII) and International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) were selected and planted in a 11×11 lattice design with two replications under artificial inoculation with fungus causing the blast disease in research fields of RRII, Rasht, Iran, in 2015. The studied traits including the number of spots, number of sporulating spots, infected level, infected percentage, infected type and area under disease progressive curve (AUDPC) in inoculated plants with fungus in the blast nursery were measured. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.01) among genotypes for all traits and most of the studied traits had high broad-sense heritability as well as phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation. Cluster analysis for classification of genotypes based on leaf blast related traits showed that the studied genotypes could be divided into three different groups based on leaf blast susceptibility and tolerance. In total, the results of the current study showed that among the studied genotypes, eight genotypes were tolerant to leaf blast disease and the most important and prominent genotypes of which were Neda and Khazar. The tolerant genotypes can be used to obtain leaf blast tolerant varieties in future breeding programs. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • AUDPC
  • Infection type
  • Landrace varieties
  • Sporulating spots
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