تأثیر تراکم سختینه‌های زمستان‌گذران بر شدت بیماری سوختگی غلاف و میزان خسارت محصول برنج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 استاد، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

4 استادیار پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

10.22124/cr.2019.14079.1514

چکیده

بیماری سوختگی غلاف برگ برنج ناشی ازRhizoctonia solani AG1- IA  یکی از بیماری­های مهم برنج از لحاظ اقتصادی در دنیا محسوب می­شود. پیش­بینی تراکم مایه تلقیح و آگاهی از نحوه زمستان­گذرانی عامل بیماری، مدیریت زراعی و کاهش استفاده از قارچ­کش‌ها را در کنترل این بیماری به­دنبال خواهد داشت. هدف از این تحقیق، بررسی اثر تراکم مایه تلقیح (سختینه) زمستان­گذران بر میزان و شدت بیماری سوختگی غلاف و میزان خسارت محصول برنج در شرایط آب و هوایی استان گیلان بود. برای این منظور، یک آزمایش مزرعه­ای در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزارع تحقیقاتی موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور (رشت) طی دو سال زراعی 98-1396 انجام شد. تیمارها به­ترتیب شامل صفر، 12، 24 و 36 سختینه در یک کرت نه متر مربعی و رقم برنج مورد مطالعه، رقم اصلاح شده ایرانی شیرودی بود. نتایج نشان داد که تراکم مایه تلقیح (سختینه) تأثیر معنی­داری بر توسعه بیماری سوختگی غلاف برگ برنج داشت و میزان بالای آن در مزرعه، منجر به افزایش بیماری و خسارت محصول در مراحل رشد برنج شد. بررسی تراکم سختینه­های زمستان­گذران طی دو سال اجرای آزمایش نیز نشان داد که میزان بارندگی­های پس از برداشت محصول برنج در قدرت زنده­مانی سختینه­های قارچ تأثیر زیادی داشت و موجب کاهش آن­ها شد. بنابراین، حذف و یا کاهش مایه تلقیح اولیه و پیش­بینی میزان زنده­مانی و بقاء عامل بیماری در شرایط مزرعه می­تواند یکی از موثرترین راه­کارها در مبارزه با بیماری سوختگی غلاف برگ برنج باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of overwintering sclerotial density on severity of sheath blight disease and rice yield loss

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Khoshkdaman 1
  • Sedigheh Mousanejad 2
  • Seyed Ali Elahinia 3
  • Ali Akbar Ebadi 4
  • Fereidoun Padasht-Dehkaei 4
1 M. Sc. Student, Dept. of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Prof. Dept. of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
4 Research Assist. Prof., Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII), Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Sheath blight disease of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA, has been recognized as one of the most economically important rice diseases in the worldwide. Predicting inoculum density and understanding their survival will lead to agronomic management and reducing the application of fungicides in controlling this disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of overwintering sclerotial density on rate and density of sheat blight disease and rice yield loss in weather conditions of Guilan province, Iran. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in research fields of Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII), Rasht, Iran, during 2017-2019. Treatments were 0, 12, 24 and 36 sclerotia in a plot of 9 m2, respectively, and the studied variety was the Iranian improved variety, Shiroudi. The results showed that inoculum (sclerotial) density had a significant effect on the development of rice sheat blight and its high density in the field resulted to increased disease and yield loss in rice growth stages. Study on the overwintering sclerotial densities during two years of experiment also showed that the amount of post-harvest rainfall had a significant effect on the survival of sclerotia and reduced them. Therefore, elimination or reduction of primary inoculum and prediction of survival rate of the disease agent under field conditions can be one of the most effective strategies in controlling rice sheath blight disease.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Forecasting
  • Inoculum
  • Rhizoctonia solani AG1- IA
  • Viability
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