تاثیر سطوح مختلف آبیاری بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت شیرین (Zea mays var. saccharata) با استفاده از کشت نشا زیر مالچ پلاستیک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور ارزیابی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت شیرین تحت تاثیر سطوح مختلف آبیاری با استفاده از کشت نشا زیر مالچ پلاستیک، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه یاسوج در سال­ 1394 اجرا شد. عامل اصلی آبیاری در سه سطح شامل 100 (1I)، 75 (2I) و 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه (3I) و عامل فرعی روش­های کشت ذرت شیرین در شش سطح شامل کشت بذر زیر مالچ پلاستیک در تاریخ 15 فروردین (1C)، کشت نشا زیر مالچ پلاستیک در تاریخ 15 فروردین (2C)، کشت بذر به روش متداول در تاریخ 15 اردیبهشت (3C)، کشت بذر زیر مالچ پلاستیک در تاریخ 15 اردیبهشت (4C)، کشت نشا زیر مالچ پلاستیک در تاریخ 15 اردیبهشت (5C) و کشت نشا به روش متداول در تاریخ 15 اردیبهشت (6C) بود. میانگین دمای هوا در تاریخ 15 فروردین 5/13 درجه و در تاریخ 15 اردیبهشت 16 درجه سلسیوس بود. نتایج نشان داد که برهمکنش آبیاری و روش­های کشت بر صفات عملکرد بلال در سطح احتمال پنج درصد و عملکرد دانه کنسروی و کارآیی اقتصادی مصرف آب در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­دار بود. بیشترین عملکرد بلال در تیمارهای 1C21C12C2I و 2C1I به­ترتیب معادل 14420، 4/14414، 7/13691 و 5/13513 کیلوگرم در هکتار به­دست آمد. استفاده از نشا باعث کاهش مصرف آب و تسریع رشد و نمو گیاه شد. بیشترین کارآیی اقتصادی مصرف آب در تیمارهای 2C21C22C3I و 1C3I به­ترتیب معادل 21/2، 18/2، 16/2 و 14/2 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب مشاهده شد. در مجموع نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که جهت تولید حداکثر محصول، استفاده از تیمار 75 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه با روش آبیاری قطره­ای نواری به­همراه مالچ پلاستیک مناسب است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of different irrigation levels on yield and yield components of sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata) using seedling cultivation under the plastic mulch

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Javad Fereidooni 1
  • Hooshang Farajee 2
1 Ph. D. Student, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Yasouj, Yasouj, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Yasouj, Yasouj, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the yield and yield components of sweet corn under the influence of different irrigation levels using seedling cultivation under plastic mulch, a split plot experiment was carried in a randomized complete block design with three replications at research field of Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, in 2015. The main factor was irrigation in three levels based on the plant water requirement, 100% (I1), 75% (I2) and 50% (I3), and the sub-factor was the cultivation methods of sweet corn in six levels including seed cultivation under plastic mulch at April 4, (C1), seedling cultivation under plastic mulch at April 4 (C2), seed cultivation as conventional method at May 5 (C3), seed cultivation under plastic mulch at May 5 (C4), seedling cultivation under plastic mulch at May 5 (C5) and seedling cultivation as conventional method at May 5 (C6). The average air temperature on April 4 was 13.5 oC and on May 4 it was 16 oC. The results indicated that the interaction of irrigation × cultivation methods on ear yield at 5% probability level and on canned grain yield and economic water use efficiency at 1% probability level were significant. The highest ear yield was obtained from I2CT1, I1C1, I2C2 and I1C2 with 14420, 14414.4, 13691.7 and 13513.5 kg.ha-1, respectively. The use of seedling reduced water consumption and accelerated plant growth and development. The highest economic water use efficiency was observed in I2C2, I2C1, I3C2 and I3C1 with 2.21, 2.18, 2.16 and 2.14 kg.m-3, respectively. Totally, The results of this study showed that the use of 75% plant water requirement together with drip tape irrigation under plastic mulch is suitable for producing the maximum yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drip tape irrigation
  • Irrigation deficit
  • Evapotranspiration
  • Water Use Efficiency
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