مستندسازی فرآیند تولید ارقام بومی برنج در دو روش کاشت رایج و نیمه‌مکانیزه در استان مازندران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر دوره فوق‌دکتری، بخش مهندسی ژنتیک و ایمنی زیستی، پژوهشکده بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعیگرگان، گرگان، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعیگرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

مستندسازی فرآیند تولید در کشاورزی شامل تهیه کلیه اطلاعات و فعالیت‌هایی است که سیر تولید یک محصول از مرحله تهیه بستر بذر تا برداشت را نشان می‌دهد. هدف از این پژوهش مستندسازی فرآیند تولید برنج در استان مازندارن بود. در این مطالعه، کلیه عملیات مدیریتی انجام شده از مرحله تهیه بستر بذر تا برداشت در 150 مزرعه برنج مدیریت­شده با دو روش کاشت نیمه­مکانیزه و سنتی (رایج منطقه) در همه شهرستان­های استان مازندران از طریق مطالعات میدانی در سال 1393 ثبت شد. بررسی­ها نشان داد که انجام عملیات زراعی از مرحله شخم اولیه و تهیه خزانه تا برداشت در هر دو روش کاشت از دهه سوم اسفند شروع شد و تا دهه اول شهریور ادامه داشت. در روش کاشت نیمه‌مکانیزه،مصرف سوخت 95 تا 130 لیتر در هکتار و استفاده از ادوات و ماشین‌آلات 40 تا 60 ساعت در هکتار بیش‌تر از روش سنتی بود، ولی مصرف بذر و نیروی انسانی در روش سنتیبیش­تر از روش نیمه‌مکانیزه بود. در هر دو روش، حدود 92 درصد از کشاورزان کم‌تر از 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود فسفر خالص مصرف کردند. حدود 50 درصد از کشاورزان در روش کاشت سنتی بین 46 تا 92 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص مصرف داشتند. دامنه تغییرات میزان علف‌کش مصرفی در روش سنتی بیش­تر از روش نیمه‌مکانیزه بود. میانگین مصرف قارچ‌کش در روش کاشت سنتی و نیمه‌مکانیزه حدود یک کیلوگرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار بود. با کنترل بیولوژیک آفات در روش سنتی و نیمه‌مکانیزه، مصرف آفت‌کش به‌ترتیب 14/13 و 64/12 درصد کاهش یافت. میانگین عملکرد شلتوک در کاشت سنتی و نیمه‌مکانیزه به‌ترتیب حدود 4100 و 4400 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود و عملکرد شلتوک در کاشت نیمه‌مکانیزه در مقایسه با کاشت سنتی از ثبات بیش­تری برخوردار بود. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که کاشت نیمه‌مکانیزه برنج منجر به کاهش مصرف 20 کیلوگرم در هکتار بذر و حدود 65 درصد نیروی انسانیدر مقایسه با روش کاشت سنتی شده و با مکانیزاسیون بیش­ترموجب افزایش عملکرد شلتوک شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Documenting the process of local rice varieties production in two conventional and semi-mechanized planting methods in Mazandaran province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Salman Dastan 1
  • Afshin Soltani 2
  • Seyed Majid Alimagham 3
1 Post-doctoral Researcher, Dept. of Genetic Engineering and Biosafety, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Agricultural Research,Education and Extension Organization(AREEO), Karaj, Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of PlantProduction, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
3 Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of PlantProduction, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Documenting the production process in agriculture includes providing all information and activities that shows the course of production from seedbed preparation stage to harvest stage. The aim of this research was to document the process of rice production in Mazandaran province. In this research, all management operations performed from seedbed preparation stage to harvest stage in 150 paddy fields managed by two conventional and semi-mechanized methods were recorded for all cities of Mazandaran province in 2014. The results showed that farming operations from primary sowing and nursery preparing to harvest in two planting methods was started from the seconddecade of March and continued to the first decade of August. Range of machinery (40 to 60 hours) and fuel consumption (95 to 130 lit.ha-1) in the semi-mechanized method was more than the conventional method, but the use of labor and seed in the conventional method was higher than the semi-mechanized method. In both methods, about 92% of farmers used less than 50 kg.ha-1P2O5fertilizer. About 50% of farmers in the conventional method consumedfrom 46 to 92 kg.ha-1N fertilizer.The range of changes of the herbicide used in the conventional method was more than the semi-mechanized method. Average fungicide consumed in conventional and semi-mechanized methods was about 1 kg.ha-1 a.i. (one kg active ingredient per ha). With biological control of pests in conventional and semi-mechanized methods, the use of pesticide was decreased 13.14 and 12.64%, respectively. Average paddy yield in conventional and semi-mechanized methods was about 4100 and 4400 kg.ha-1, respectively, and paddy yield in the semi-mechanized method was more stable than the conventional method. Theresults of this research showed that semi-mechanized planting of rice resulted to decrease in consumption of 20 kg.ha-1seed and about 65% of labor compared to conventional method and increased paddy yield with further mechanization. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agricultural operations
  • Mechanization
  • Paddy yield
  • Seed consumption
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