تاثیر تاریخ و روش‌ کاشت بر عملکرد بلال، کارآیی مصرف آب و برخی صفات فنولوژیک ذرت شیرین در یاسوج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری،گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکدهعلوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

5 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر تاریخ و روش­ کاشت بر عملکرد، کارآیی مصرف آب و برخی صفات فنولوژیک ذرت شیرین، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در اراضی تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد یاسوج در سال 1395 اجرا ­شد. عامل اصلی آزمایش، تاریخ کاشت در پنج سطح (15و 30 اردیبهشت،15 و 30 خرداد و 15 تیر) و عامل فرعی، روش­ کاشت در سه سطح (کاشت بذر به­روش متداول، کاشت نشای15 روزه و کاشت نشای20 روزه) بود. نتایج نشان داد که برهمکنش تاریخ و روش کاشت بر عملکرد بلال و کارآیی مصرف آب معنی‌‌دار بود. مقایسه میانگین داده­ها نشان داد که کاشت نشای 15 روزه در تاریخ 15 اردیبهشت­ماه، دارای بیش­ترین عملکرد دانه کنسروی (16 تن در هکتار) و نشای 20 روزه در تاریخ کاشت 15 تیرماه دارای کم­ترین عملکرد بلال (24/8 تن در هکتار) بود. بالاترین کارایی مصرف آب معادل 93/2 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب نیز در تاریخ کاشت 15 اردیبهشت و نشای 15 روزه به­دست آمد که نسبت به نشای 20 روزه در تاریخ کاشت 15 تیرماه، 66 درصد بیش­تر بود. اثر تاریخ و روش کاشت بر طول دوره رویشی و تعداد روز از کاشت تا برداشت معنی‌دار شد. با تاخیر در کاشت، طول دوره رویشی گیاه کاهش یافت، به­طوری­که بیش­ترین طول دوره رشد رویشی در تاریخ کاشت 15 اردیبهشت­ماه و کم­ترین آن در تاریخ کاشت 15 تیرماه به­دست آمد. همچنین، طول دوره رویشی در روش کاشت نشایی کم­تر از روش کاشت بذری بود، به­طوری­که کاشت بذر باطول دوره رشد 4/87 روز بیش­ترین و کاشت نشای20 روزه با 1/77 روز کم­ترین طول دوره رشد را داشتند. علاوه بر آن، روش کاشتنشایی قند دانه را نیزافزایش داد. در مجموع، نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که با کاربرد نشا، بلوغ گیاه تسریع می­شود و بنابراین، در شرایطی که گیاه ممکن است با عوامل نامساعد آب و هوایی برخورد کند، می­توان با کاربرد نشا، طول دوره رشد محصول را کاهش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of planting date and method on ear yield, water use efficiency and some phenological characteristicsof sweet corn in Yasouj

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Mohamad Zade 1
  • Jafar Asghary 2
  • Hooshang farajee 3
  • Ali Moradi 4
  • Majid Majidian 5
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Assoc.Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Yasouj, Yasouj, Iran
4 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Yasouj, Yasouj, Iran
5 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of plantingdate and method on ear yield, water use efficiency and some phenological characteristics of sweet corn, an experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomize complete blocks design with three replications in research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Azad University of Yasouj, Iran, in 2016. The main factor of the experiment included planting date in five levels (4 and 19 May, 4 and 19 June and5 July) and the sub factor wasplanting method in three levels including seed cultivation, 15-day seedling (three leaf stage) and 20-day seedling (four leaf stage) cultivation.The results showed that the effect of planting date and method interaction on ear yield and water use efficiencywas significant. Mean comparison of data indicated that 15-day seedlingcultivatedat May 4th had the highestcanned grain yield (16 t.ha-1) and 20-day seedlingat July 5thhad the lowest ear yield (8.24 t.ha-1). The highest water use efficiency (2.93 kg.m-3) was also obtained from 15-day seedling cultivation at May 4th, which was 66% higher than the 20-day seedling atJuly 5th. The effects of planting date and method on vegetative period and days from planting to harvest were significant. The vegetative period decreased with delay in planting date, so that the highest vegetative growth period was obtained in the planting date of May 4thand the lowest in the July 5th.Also, the duration of vegetative period in the seedling cultivation method was less than the seed cultivation method, so that the seed cultivation with growth period of 87.4 days and 20-day seedling cultivation with77.1 days had the highest and lowest growth period, respectively. In addition, the seedlings cultivation method increased grain sugar content.In total, the results of this research showed that the application of seedling cultivation method can accelerate the maturity of the plant, and therefore, when the plant may be exposed tounfavorable weather conditions, the growth period can be reduced by the application of seedling cultivation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Canned grain yield
  • Days from planting to harvest
  • Vegetative period
  • Water consumption
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