کارایی لاین های خالص ذرت (Zea mays L.) از لحاظ جذب و مصرف فسفر خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 استاد، گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

فسفر بعد از نیتروژن مهم‌ترین عنصر غذایی ضروری مورد نیاز گیاه است و مهم‌ترین نقش را در تولید و انتقال انرژی دارد. در این آزمایش، کارایی جذب و مصرف فسفر در 93 لاین خالص ذرت تحت دو شرایط بهینه و کمبود فسفر قابلِ استفاده بر اساس طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط گلدانی ارزیابی شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده­ها نشان داد که لاین­های ذرت از لحاظ وزن خشک شاخساره، مقدار و غلظت فسفر کل، شاخص پاسخ به کود، شاخص کارایی جذب فسفر، شاخص کارایی مصرف فسفر و شاخص کارایی فسفر تفاوت معنی­داری داشتند. شاخص کودپذیری لاین­های ذرت از 13 تا 67/223 گرم متغیر و میانگین آن 39/70 گرم بود. شاخص کارایی جذب فسفر در لاین­های مورد مطالعه از 11/0 تا 85/0 و میانگین آن 41/0 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم بود. شاخص کارایی مصرف فسفر نیز از 10/1 تا 65/4 گرم ماده خشک بر میلی­گرم فسفر متغیر بود و میانگین آن تحت شرایط بهینه و کمبود فسفر به­ترتیب 97/0و 89/1 گرم محاسبه شد. دامنه تغییرات شاخص کارایی فسفر نیز بین 40/0 تا 95/0 درصد و میانگین آن 71/0 بود. بر اساس شاخص­های ارزیابی شده تحت شرایط کمبود فسفر خاک، لاین­های 1، 9، 10 و 26 به­عنوان لاین­های فسفر-کارا و لاین­های 65، 46، 49 و 79 به­عنوان لاین­های فسفر- ناکارا معرفی می­شوند. لاین‌های فسفر-کارای معرفی شده در این تحقیق می­توانند جهت تولید ارقام فسفر-کارا در برنامه‌های به­نژادی آینده مورد استفاده قرار گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Efficiency of maize inbred lines (Zea mays L.) in terms of adsorption and consumption of soil phosphorus

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Razmjou 1
  • Reza Darvishzadeh 2
  • Hadi Alipour 3
  • Ebrahim Sepehr 4
1 Ph. D. Student, Dept. of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
4 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

After nitrogen, phosphorus is the most important and essential nutrient for plants, and plays the most important role in the process of energy production and transmission. In this sttudy, the efficiency of phosphorus adsorption and consumption in 93 maize inbred lines were assessed based on a potted experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications under phosphorus sufficient (optimum) and deficient conditions. The results of analysis of variance revealed that there was a significant difference among maize lines in terms of shoot dry weight, total phosphorus content and concentration, fertilizer response index, phosphorus adsorption efficiency index, phosphorus consumption efficiency index and calculated phosphorus efficiency index. The fertilizer response index of maize lines varied from 13 to 223.67 g with an average of 70.39 g. The phosphorus adsorption efficiency index in the studied lines ranged from 0.11 to 0.85 and its average was 0.41 mg/kg. The phosphorus consumption efficiency index varied from 1.10 to 4.65 g dry matter per mg phosphorus and its average under sufficient (optimum) and deficient conditions were calculated 0.97 and 1.89 g, respectively. The phosphorus efficiency index ranged from 0.40% to 0.95% with an average of 0.71%. Based on the evaluated indices under soil phosphorus deficiency conditions, the maize lines 1, 9, 10, and 26 are introduced as phosphorus-efficient genotypes and the lines 65, 46, 49 and 79 as phosphorus-inefficient genotypes. The phosphorous-efficient lines introduced in this research can be potentially used to produce phosphorus-efficient maize varieties in the future breeding programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Abiotic Stress
  • Genetic diversity
  • Phosphorus deficiency
  • Phosphorus-efficient
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